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Journal: Annals of plastic surgery


Sushruta is considered the “Father of Plastic Surgery.” He lived in India sometime between 1000 and 800 BC, and is responsible for the advancement of medicine in ancient India. His teaching of anatomy, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies were of unparalleled luminosity, especially considering his time in the historical record. He is notably famous for nasal reconstruction, which can be traced throughout the literature from his depiction within the Vedic period of Hindu medicine to the era of Tagliacozzi during Renaissance Italy to modern-day surgical practices. The primary focus of this historical review is centered on Sushruta’s anatomical and surgical knowledge and his creation of the cheek flap for nasal reconstruction and its transition to the “Indian method.” The influential nature of the Sushruta Samhita, the compendium documenting Sushruta’s theories about medicine, is supported not only by anatomical knowledge and surgical procedural descriptions contained within its pages, but by the creative approaches that still hold true today.

Concepts: Medicine, Ayurveda, Surgery, Plastic surgery, Sushruta Samhita, Rhinoplasty, History of India, Vedas


BACKGROUND: Many Asians receive epicanthoplasty to improve their medial epicanthal fold.Excessive performance of such surgery may cause multiple unwanted results, but there is no report on any restoration method for an overcorrected result of epicanthoplasty. Accordingly, the authors have created a new method for reversely restoring the excessively corrected medial epicanthal fold using skin-redraping epicanthoplasty (Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:703-710). METHODS: During the interval between January 2009 and April 2011, 35 patients received surgery for restoration of the epicanthal fold using the authors' method, which involves sufficiently elevating the skin flap and redraping it to reconstruct the epicanthal fold. This method is very simple to design and perform, and it effectively covers the excessively exposed lacrimal lake. In addition, it can be used independently of the type of prior epicanthoplasty. RESULTS: After the surgery, 2 patients experienced overcorrection, and we repeated the epicanthoplasty. In the other patients, there was no severe complication except for mild redness, a condition that improved after several months. The mean measured distance between the medial canthi after the surgery was 36.8 mm, corresponding to a total lengthening effect of 4.5 mm. This improved the aggressive facial expression caused by the exposed lacrimal lake, and the eyes no longer appeared to be too close together. Moreover, in the case of patients who had more visible scars due to prior epicanthoplasty on the medial epicanthal area, the overall scar length decreased. CONCLUSIONS: This method is simple in design and easy to perform. It can also control the degree of restoration with an additional advantage of reducing a prior scar. Using this method, we could effectively restore the overcorrected epicanthal fold.

Concepts: Causality, Scar, Eye, Skin, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, FN SCAR, 2011, Lacrimal lake


Commonly used materials for orbital floor fracture reconstruction include autologous cranial bone graft and titanium mesh. We have evaluated here a biomaterial combining biphasic calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite [HA]/β-tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) osteoconductive scaffold with single-donor allogeneic platelet fibrin glue.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Coagulation, Calcium, Orthopedic surgery, Materials science, Thrombin, Calcium phosphate


BACKGROUND: Sternal dehiscence is a grave complication after open heart surgery. Sternal debridement and flap coverage are the mainstays of therapy, but no consensus exists regarding the appropriate level of debridement. More recently, the use of vacuum-assisted closure devices has been advocated as a bridge to definitive closure, but indications for use remain incompletely defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all chest wall reconstructions performed from January 2000 to December 2010 was conducted. The type of operative management was evaluated to assess morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients underwent chest wall reconstruction for poststernotomy mediastinitis. Of these patients, 24 underwent conservative sternal debridement with flap closure, 24 underwent radical sternectomy including resection of the costal cartilages followed by flap closure, and 6 underwent radical sternectomy with vacuum-assisted closure therapy followed by flap closure in a delayed fashion. There were 15 patients in the conservative group and 8 patients in the radical sternectomy group who developed postoperative complications (62.5% vs 33.3%, P < 0.05). The conservative sternectomy group had more serious complications requiring reoperation compared to the radical sternectomy group (86.7% vs 25.0%, P < 0.05). The most common complication in the former group was flap dehiscence (8/15, 53.3%), whereas that in the latter group was a superficial wound infection (6/8, 75.0%). There was no significant difference in mortality (25.0% vs 25.0%, P > 0.05%) or length of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Radical sternectomy including the costal cartilages is associated with lower rates of surgical morbidity and reoperation, but not mortality.

Concepts: Heart, Surgery, Sternum, Wound, Cardiothoracic surgery, Cardiac surgery


Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of levobupivacaine and a levobupivacaine + tramadol combination on postoperative analgesia in intraoperative nerve block under standard general anesthetic.

Concepts: Anesthesia, Morphine, Infraorbital nerve, AIM Investment Management


BACKGROUND: The sheer number of accepted inferior turbinoplasty techniques emphasizes the fact that there is no general agreement on which approach yields optimal results, nor are there data available that describes prevalent techniques in turbinate surgery among plastic surgeons. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify practice patterns among plastic surgeons who perform inferior turbinoplasty during rhinoplasty. METHODS: Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons were invited to participate in an anonymous, Internet-based survey containing questions related to personal preferences and outcomes in inferior turbinate surgery. RESULTS: A total of 534 members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons participated in the survey. Most (71.7%) trained in an independent plastic surgery program with prerequisite training in general surgery. More than half (50.6%) had more than 20 years of operative experience; only 15.2% reported performing greater than 40 rhinoplasties per year. The 5 most preferred inferior turbinate reduction techniques were outfracture of the turbinates (49.1%), partial turbinectomy (33.3%), submucous reduction via electrocautery (25.3%), submucous resection (23.6%), and electrocautery (22.5%). Fewer than 10% of the respondents reported the use of newer techniques such as radiofrequency thermal ablation (5.6%), use of the microdebrider (2.2%), laser cautery (1.1%), or cryosurgery (0.6%). Mucosal crusting and desiccation were the most frequently reported complications. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this survey provide insights into the current preferences in inferior turbinate reduction surgery. Plastic surgeons are performing more conventional methods of turbinate reduction rather than taking advantage of the many of the more novel technology-driven methods.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Plastic surgery, Surgeon, Reconstructive surgery, General surgery, Rhinoplasty, Cauterization


INTRODUCTION: Venous anastomosis is 1 of the most challenging technical aspects of microsurgery. Recently, it has been expedited by the use of an anastomotic coupler device in multiple reconstructive venues. However, there are few studies in the literature evaluating the use of the coupler in lower extremity reconstruction. We present 1 of the largest series to date examining the use of the venous coupler in microsurgical reconstruction of the lower extremity. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed including all lower extremity soft tissue reconstruction over a 26-month period performed by the senior authors. The Synovis venous coupler was used in all coupled venous anastomoses (Synovis Micro Companies Alliance Inc, Birmingham, Alabama). Patients under 18 years of age were excluded. RESULTS: Forty-nine free flaps were performed in 48 patients. All arterial anastomoses were hand sewn. The anastomotic venous coupler was used in 48 of 49 flaps (97.9%) with 1 hand-sewn case due to attending preference during early experience. There were no intraoperative vascular complications. Successful free flap reconstruction occurred in 47 of 49 flaps (95.9%). Of the flap losses, 1 was due to delayed venous thrombosis, the other attributed to delayed arterial thrombosis. Venous thrombosis rate was 2.1% when the coupler was used (1 failure in 48 flaps). CONCLUSIONS: The use of the venous coupler device in lower extremity reconstruction can be performed with a high degree of success. The potential of the venous coupler for reduced operative time, more efficient anastomoses with decreased ischemia, and reduced thrombotic rates represents potential benefits of this important tool.

Concepts: Blood, Thrombosis, Surgery, Vein, Cardiovascular system, Anastomosis, Surgical anastomosis, Free flap


Among various surgical treatments, lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA), which bypasses congested lymph into venous circulation, is the least invasive surgical treatment. However, it usually entails skin incisions of around 3 cm, and operation time of around 4 hours. With multiple supermicrosurgeons under guidance of indocyanine green lymphography, LVAs can be simultaneously performed under local anesthesia within approximately 2 hours via small skin incisions with length less than 1 cm, allowing minimally invasive lymphatic supermicrosurgery. We performed minimally invasive lymphatic supermicrosurgery on 11 limbs of compression-refractory peripheral lymphedema cases. Length of skin incision for LVA ranged from 1 to 9 mm. Average operation time was 1.82 hours. Of the11 limbs, 10 showed postoperative volume reduction. Indocyanine green lymphography clearly visualizes superficial lymph flows, which helps us to decide precise skin incision sites and find lymphatic vessels in LVA surgery, shortening skin incision length and operation time. Minimally invasive lymphatic supermicrosurgery can serve as the most reasonable treatment of compression-refractory peripheral lymphedema.

Concepts: Orders of magnitude, Surgery, Lymphatic system, Interstitial fluid, Anesthesia, Cardiovascular system, Lymph vessel, Lymphedema


The treatment of facial palsy is a complex and challenging area of plastic surgery. Two distinct anatomical regions and functions are the focus of interest when managing facial palsy: (1) reanimation of the eyelids and (2) reconstruction of the smile. This review will focus on the treatment of ocular manifestations of facial palsy. The principles of eyelid rehabilitation will be presented along with a discussion of surgical and nonsurgical treatment options.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Plastic surgery, Reconstructive surgery, General surgery, Microsurgery, Blepharoplasty, Bell's palsy


BACKGROUND: There are several methods that may be used to confirm the status of rib cartilage, such as physical examinations or chest radiography, for subjects with microtia. However, these methods are limited because of clinicians' inability to gain accurate information about the rib cartilage. We performed 3-dimensional chest computed tomography to preoperatively evaluate the accuracy of rib cartilage imaging. METHODS: A total of 37 patients preparing for auricular reconstruction using a rib cartilage graft underwent preoperative 3-dimensional rib cage computed tomography (3-D rib CT). The 3-D rib CT was performed in cases of secondary revisional reconstruction, those with a history of surgery using rib cartilage, in those with a history of trauma related to the rib cage, older patients with question of calcification of rib cartilage, or those with a suspected rib cartilage anomaly on physical examination. Preoperatively, the appropriateness of using the rib cartilage were evaluated. RESULTS: With the aid of the 3-D rib CT, successful autogenous auricular reconstruction was achieved in 36 patients. Framework fabrication in combination with a porous polyethylene implant and autogenous rib cartilage was performed in the remaining patient as planned preoperatively. By analyzing the 3-D rib CT image preoperatively, auricular reconstruction using a recycled rib cartilage graft with newly harvested rib cartilage was performed successfully in 13 of 14 secondary revisional cases. Based on preoperative CT images, modified surgical planning in terms of cartilage harvest and framework fabrication was needed in 8 of 11 patients who had a history of operation using rib cartilage and in 3 of 5 subjects with suspected rib cage anomalies on physical examination. Successful reconstruction was achieved using the modified surgical plan. CONCLUSIONS: A preoperative 3-D rib CT helps in surgical planning for autogenous auricular reconstruction for microtia, especially in patients with suspicious rib cartilage status.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Medical imaging, Radiography, Tomographic reconstruction, Tomography, Physical examination, Human rib cage