SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Annals of medicine and surgery (2012)

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The incidence of anal cancer has increased during the second half of the 20th century, with an incidence rate over 2.9% greater than in the decade of 1992-2001. Yet, it still constitutes a small percentage, about 4%, of all anorectal tumours. Its risk factors are human papillomavirus infection, a history of sexually transmitted diseases, a history of vulvar or cervical carcinoma, immunosuppression related to human immunodeficiency virus infection or after organ transplantation, haematological or immunological disorders, and smoking. The most frequent symptom is rectal bleeding (45%), followed by anal pain, and sensation of a rectal mass. The diagnosis requires clinical examination, palpation of the inguinal lymph nodes, high resolution anoscopy followed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core biopsy. Subsequent histologic diagnosis is necessary, as well as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of the pelvic lymph nodes. Since 1980, patients with a diagnosis of anal cancer have shown a significant improvement in survival. In Europe during the years 1983-1994, 1-year survival increased from 78% to 81%, and the improvement over 5 years was between 48% and 54%. Prior to 1974, patients with invasive cancer were routinely scheduled for abdominoperineal amputation, after which it was demonstrated that treatment with 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy associated with mitomycin or capecitabine could be adequate to treat the tumour without surgery. Today, numerous studies have confirmed that combined multimodal treatment is effective and sufficient.

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Gastric trichobezoar happens when there is an indigestible substance or food found in the gastrointestinal tract. It is a rare presentation which is usually associated with trichotillomania and trichopagia. The presentation may not be specific and is usually related to dyspepsia-like symptoms. In the worst-case scenario, this may cause gastric outlet or intestinal obstruction which eventually requires surgery.

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Impacted foreign bodies in the esophagus have the potential to cause serious complications. Ingested sharp objects carry the risk of acute complications as: perforation, acute mediastinitis, and acute bleeding. Rarely, such foreign bodies might migrate through the esophageal wall and present as chronic esophageal foreign body.

4

Sleep deprivation has a potentially deleterious effect on postoperative recovery. The aim of our prospective study was to identify the factors contributing to postoperative sleep deprivation and disturbance in order to recommend improvements in postoperative care.

Concepts: Sleep deprivation

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The Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) has been shown to reduce perioperative errors and complications and its implementation is recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). However, it is unknown how widely this intervention is used. We investigated attitudes and factors associated with use of WHO SSC in frontline medical professionals across the globe using a survey distributed through social networks.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Earth, Sociology, World, World Health Organization, Surveying, Geodesy

3

The potential of surgery lies in the technological advances that would complement it. The landscape of the field will differ depending on the time period being looked at and would no doubt include conjecture. Initial breakthroughs will need to pave the way for future medical technology and apply to the surgical sciences. Within the next 10 years we would expect to see the emergence of big data analysis, cuttingedge image processing techniques for surgical planning and better implementation of virtual and augmented reality in operating theatres for both patient care and teaching purposes. Over the next 50 to 100 years, the use of quantum computing should lead to increased automation in our healthcare systems. The inception of novel biomaterial invention and advanced genetic engineering will usher in the new age of regenerative medicine in the clinical setting. The future of surgery includes many predictions and promises, but it is apparent that the development will lead to bettering outcome and focus on patient care.

3

In this study, we aim to assess the efficacy and safety of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and super-selective mesenteric artery embolisation in managing lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) at a multi-centre health service in Melbourne (Australia).

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Atheroma, Surgery, Angiography, Radiology, Digital subtraction angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography, Gastrointestinal bleeding

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient satisfaction and surgical outcomes at King Khalid University Hospital in Saudi Arabia.

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Exclusive breastfeeding has been endorsed as the healthiest feeding choice for newborns. This study aims to assess impact of expecting mothers' knowledge and attitude toward intention to breastfeed exclusively. Utilizing mobile health (mHealth) as educational tool can offer a widely distributed and affordable platform to promote exclusive breastfeeding.

2

Timely availability of blood sample results for interpretation affects planning and delivery of patient care from initial assessment in Accident and Emergency (A&E) departments.

Concepts: Hospital, Risk, Urgent care