SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Annals of medicine and surgery (2012)

227

In the Philippines, non-therapeutic genital cutting is viewed as a culturally sanctioned rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. Strong social and peer pressure is exerted on boys aged between 8-16years to submit to destructive genital cutting, despite the fact that many men who have been subjected to genital cutting during infancy or childhood often describe their experiences in the language of violence, torture, mutilation, and sexual assault. Among a group of 505 Filipino boys subjected to ritual genital cutting (Tuli), 69% fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD, while among 1072 boys circumcised by medical operators or their assistants, 51% exhibited PTSD symptoms. Pursuant to ritual genital cutting, almost 3 out of every 4 boys exhibited PTSD-like symptoms.

144

Formation of intra-abdominal adhesions is a common consequence of abdomino-pelvic surgery, radiation therapy, and inflammatory processes. In a small but clinically significant proportion of patients, adhesive disease may develop, wherein adhesions lead to a variety of chronic symptoms such as abdominal distension, pain, nausea, and abnormal bowel movement pattern which can be daily, intermittent, or episodic. Due to the chronic and troublesome nature of these symptoms, adhesive disease may be life-altering in many patients, particularly when not recognized and appropriately addressed, as is the case not infrequently. In addition, there is a paucity of literature regarding the evaluation and management of patients with suspected abdominal adhesive disease. Therefore, in this concise review, we provide a clinically practical synopsis of the etiopathogenesis, symptoms, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of abdominal adhesive disease.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Medical terms, Chemotherapy, Medical diagnosis, Bowel obstruction, Differential diagnosis, Kanye West

59

COVID-19’s daily increasing cases and deaths have led to worldwide lockdown, quarantine and some restrictions. This study aims to analyze the effect of lockdown days on the spread of coronavirus in countries. COVID-19 cases and lockdown days data were collected for 49 countries that implemented the lockdown between certain dates (without interruption). The correlation tests were used for data analysis based on unconstrained (normal) and constrained (Tukey-lambda). The lockdown days was significantly correlated with COVID-19 pandemic based on unconstrained (r = -0.9126, F-ratio = 6.1654; t-ratio = 2.40; prob > .0203 with 49 observations) and based on Tukey-lambda (r = 0.7402, λ = 0.14). The lockdown, one of the social isolation restrictions, has been observed to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic, and showed that the spread of the virus can be significantly reduced by this preventive restriction in this study. This study offers initial evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic can be suppressed by a lockdown. The application of lockdown by governments is also thought to be effective on psychology, environment and economy besides having impact on Covid-19.

46

Clinicians must maintain an index of suspicion to diagnose an anorectal foreign body (FB). The patient may not be forthcoming with information secondary to embarrassment or possibly psychiatric issues. Providers must express empathy and compassion while maintaining nonjudgmental composure. Despite accounts of anal FB insertion, this pathology is lacking level one evidence-based surgical algorithms.

30

To systematically review the procedure, applications, and outcomes of autologous fat grafting, a promising technique with various clinical applications.

20

In this article, we use our experiences to provide tips for contacting potential supervisors, what to expect from them and how to approach them for research opportunities. With appropriate planning, you will be surprised by the number of prestigious academics who would be willing for you to join their research group, and to get you involved in a research project.

Concepts: Research, Article

10

Nowadays, liposuction is the most frequently performed aesthetic surgery procedure in Western Countries. This technique has had rapid development since the 1970s, when it was experimented for the first time by A. and G. Fischer. It is currently widely used in clinical practice for many different situations in aesthetic, reconstructive and functional fields.

Concepts: Plastic surgery, Reconstructive surgery, Progressive rock, Debut albums

8

The objective of the present study is to assess the safety and feasibility of the use of telemedicine-based services for surgical wound care and to measure patient satisfaction with telemedicine-based follow-up.

7

High-performance disciplines have always been concerned with safety and exceptional performance. They have established a culture of vigilance and accepted that human error is both inevitable and ubiquitous. These disciplines, therefore, have all implemented a ‘systems approach’ to error by focusing on predicting, preventing, rescuing and reporting errors that occur so that they can constantly adapt and improve. Given the complexity of surgery, and the error-prone environment within which it takes place, extracting positive behaviours from other high-performance disciplines will serve to improve performance and enhance patient safety. Surgery is being practiced in an ever-changing environment. Currently, there is less available operative experience for surgical trainees; multi-morbidity in patients is growing and rapidly evolving technology means that more high-tech equipment is being used in procedures. This article evaluates the effectiveness of current surgical protocol in reducing errors and possible modifications that can be made to fit the new environment that surgery is now being practiced in. It will then describe how three different high-performance disciplines: aviation, professional sport and Formula 1, have developed in their approaches to safety and excellence, which will serve as the basis for a discussion about what more can be learnt from these disciplines so that the surgical profession can continue to excel in the face of change.

6

The incidence of anal cancer has increased during the second half of the 20th century, with an incidence rate over 2.9% greater than in the decade of 1992-2001. Yet, it still constitutes a small percentage, about 4%, of all anorectal tumours. Its risk factors are human papillomavirus infection, a history of sexually transmitted diseases, a history of vulvar or cervical carcinoma, immunosuppression related to human immunodeficiency virus infection or after organ transplantation, haematological or immunological disorders, and smoking. The most frequent symptom is rectal bleeding (45%), followed by anal pain, and sensation of a rectal mass. The diagnosis requires clinical examination, palpation of the inguinal lymph nodes, high resolution anoscopy followed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core biopsy. Subsequent histologic diagnosis is necessary, as well as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of the pelvic lymph nodes. Since 1980, patients with a diagnosis of anal cancer have shown a significant improvement in survival. In Europe during the years 1983-1994, 1-year survival increased from 78% to 81%, and the improvement over 5 years was between 48% and 54%. Prior to 1974, patients with invasive cancer were routinely scheduled for abdominoperineal amputation, after which it was demonstrated that treatment with 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy associated with mitomycin or capecitabine could be adequate to treat the tumour without surgery. Today, numerous studies have confirmed that combined multimodal treatment is effective and sufficient.