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Journal: AJR. American journal of roentgenology


OBJECTIVE. Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus pulmonary illness coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, more than 79,000 people have contracted the virus worldwide. The virus is rapidly spreading with human-to-human transmission despite imposed precautions. Because similar pulmonary syndromes have been reported from other strains of the coronavirus family, our aim is to review the lessons from imaging studies obtained during severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks. CONCLUSION. The review of experiences with the MERS and SARS outbreaks will help us better understand the role of the radiologist in combating the outbreak of COVID-19. The known imaging manifestations of the novel coronavirus and the possible unknowns will also be discussed.


OBJECTIVE. In this article, we describe some of the cognitive and system-based sources of detection and interpretation errors in diagnostic radiology and discuss potential approaches to help reduce misdiagnoses. CONCLUSION. Every radiologist worries about missing a diagnosis or giving a false-positive reading. The retrospective error rate among radiologic examinations is approximately 30%, with real-time errors in daily radiology practice averaging 3-5%. Nearly 75% of all medical malpractice claims against radiologists are related to diagnostic errors. As medical reimbursement trends downward, radiologists attempt to compensate by undertaking additional responsibilities to increase productivity. The increased workload, rising quality expectations, cognitive biases, and poor system factors all contribute to diagnostic errors in radiology. Diagnostic errors are underrecognized and underappreciated in radiology practice. This is due to the inability to obtain reliable national estimates of the impact, the difficulty in evaluating effectiveness of potential interventions, and the poor response to systemwide solutions. Most of our clinical work is executed through type 1 processes to minimize cost, anxiety, and delay; however, type 1 processes are also vulnerable to errors. Instead of trying to completely eliminate cognitive shortcuts that serve us well most of the time, becoming aware of common biases and using metacognitive strategies to mitigate the effects have the potential to create sustainable improvement in diagnostic errors.

Concepts: X-ray, Medical imaging, Positron emission tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Radiology, Fluoroscopy, Medical radiography, Medical malpractice


OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to describe the MRI findings in the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) analogous to mucoid degeneration in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); to correlate MRI findings in the PCL with ligamentous stability; to differentiate the PCL tram-track appearance from the appearance of PCL tears; and to emphasize the coexistence of PCL and ACL mucoid degeneration, cruciate ganglia, and meniscal cysts. CONCLUSION. The tram-track PCL appearance commonly coexists with ACL mucoid degeneration; ganglia; and, less frequently, meniscal cysts. Both PCL tears and MRI findings suggestive of PCL mucoid degeneration show ligament thickening and increased PCL signal intensity. Tram-track PCLs are usually asymptomatic and typically have no ligamentous instability.

Concepts: Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, Correlation and dependence, Ligament, Cruciate ligament, Ligaments, Drawer test, Ligaments of the lower limb


OBJECTIVE. Although often incidental, the “empty” sella turcica can reflect chronically elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). It is particularly common in the setting of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). This study evaluated which clinical and MRI findings could be used to differentiate patients with chronically elevated ICP from those with incidental empty sella turcica. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Forty-five patients with definite IIH and 92 patients with “empty sella” reported on brain MRI were evaluated. Measurements of the sella turcica, diaphragm sella, pituitary gland, infundibulum, and scalp and neck soft tissues were made on MR images. These measurements, age, sex, clinical symptoms, and frequency of previously reported orbital findings of IIH were compared between the IIH and incidental empty sella turcica groups. Measurements on MRI were correlated with patient age in each group. RESULTS. The IIH and incidental empty sella turcica groups had statistically similar sellar, pituitary, and infundibular measurements. The patients with IIH were significantly younger than the patients with incidental empty sella turcica (mean age, 36.1 vs 54.3 years, respectively; p < 0.05); were more likely to report headache (93.3% vs 32.6%; p < 0.05) and visual complaints (66.2% vs 28.3%; p < 0.05); showed greater mean scalp thickness (9.0 vs 6.4 mm; p < 0.05) and neck soft-tissue thickness (19.5 vs 13.8 mm; p < 0.05); and were more likely to have an orbital finding suggestive of IIH (93% vs 14%). Age modestly correlated with the width of the diaphragm sella (r = 0.53) in the IIH group only. CONCLUSION. The significance of the MRI finding of an empty sella turcica can be determined using a combination of clinical and imaging findings.

Concepts: Pituitary gland, Intracranial pressure, Brain tumor, Magnetic resonance imaging, Neurology, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Sella turcica, Empty sella syndrome


OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the CT and MRI features of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen with pathologic correlation. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Nine patients with surgically resected and pathologically confirmed sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation were included in the study. Clinical history was reviewed to determine patient demographics and symptoms at presentation. Gross pathologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings were recorded. CT (n = 9) and MRI (n = 4) examinations were evaluated for lesion shape and margins, intrinsic characteristics, and enhancement pattern. RESULTS. Patients included were six women and three men, with a mean age of 41.2 years. Pathologic features of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation included multiple angiomatous nodules in a radiating pattern with a central stellate fibrous scar and evidence of hemosiderin deposition. On imaging, the lesions were solitary and round, 78% having a lobulated margin. They were heterogeneously hypoenhancing during the arterial and portal venous phases of contrast-enhanced CT or MRI, with peripheral enhancing radiating lines in 88% of lesions. They showed progressive enhancement and were isoenhancing or hyperenhancing in the delayed phase. A hypoenhancing central scar was shown on imaging in 22% of lesions. All lesions were hypointense on T2-weighted images. CONCLUSION. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation shows characteristic CT and MRI findings reflecting the underlying pathology. Typical features are a solitary, round, lobulated mass with early peripheral enhancing radiating lines and progressive enhancement of the angiomatous nodules; delayed enhancement of the fibrous tissue; and hypo-intense T2 signal intensity from hemosiderin deposition.

Concepts: Blood, Pathology, Anatomical pathology, Histology, Magnetic resonance imaging, Vein, Ablative brain surgery, Progressive enhancement


In breast cancer patients eligible for breast-conserving surgery, we evaluated whether the information provided by preoperative MRI of the breast would result in fewer tumor-positive resection margins and fewer reoperations.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Chemotherapy, Pleural effusion, Inflammatory breast cancer, Janet Lane-Claypon


The objective of our study was to evaluate the MDCT features of incidentally detected neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas, identify features that can predict tumor biology or aggressiveness and long-term outcome, and determine the incidence of “nonbenign” behavior.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Brain tumor, Incidence, Tumor, Neuroendocrine tumor


OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to review developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), a well-described entity previously evaluated with a standard multimodality imaging algorithm, typically consisting of ultrasound and radiography depending on patient age. CONCLUSION. MRI is increasingly used because it is a noninvasive imaging modality that offers excellent anatomic detail, enabling the differentiation of ossified and unossified components of the hip. The radiologist should be aware of the increasing role of MRI and recognize the critical MRI findings of DDH.

Concepts: X-ray, Developmental biology, Medical imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Radiology, Radiologic technologist, Multimodal interaction


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of radiomic features from CT scans in predicting occult mediastinal lymph node (LN) metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Prediction, Adenocarcinoma, Thought experiment, Astrology


Our objective was to determine the association between muscle cross-sectional area and attenuation, as measured on routine CT scans, and mortality in older patients with hip fracture.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone fracture, Muscle, The Association, Area, Sunshine pop