Journal: Air quality, atmosphere, & health
Epidemiologic studies have consistently reported associations between outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and adverse health effects. Although Asia bears the majority of the public health burden from air pollution, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted outside of North America and Europe due in part to challenges in population exposure assessment. We assessed the feasibility of two current exposure assessment techniques, land use regression (LUR) modeling and mobile monitoring, and estimated the mortality attributable to air pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. We developed LUR models for predicting wintertime spatial patterns of NO2 and SO2 based on 2-week passive Ogawa measurements at 37 locations and freely available geographic predictors. The models explained 74% and 78% of the variance in NO2 and SO2, respectively. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite images were useful predictors of both pollutants. Mobile PM2.5 monitoring with an integrating nephelometer also showed promise, capturing substantial spatial variation in PM2.5 concentrations. The spatial patterns in SO2 and PM, seasonal and diurnal patterns in PM2.5, and high wintertime PM2.5/PM10 ratios were consistent with a major impact from coal and wood combustion in the city’s low-income traditional housing (ger) areas. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 measured at a centrally located government monitoring site was 75 μg/m3 or more than seven times the World Health Organization’s PM2.5 air quality guideline, driven by a wintertime average concentration of 148 μg/m3. PM2.5 concentrations measured in a traditional housing area were higher, with a wintertime mean PM2.5 concentration of 250 μg/m3. We conservatively estimated that 29% (95% CI, 12-43%) of cardiopulmonary deaths and 40% (95% CI, 17-56%) of lung cancer deaths in the city are attributable to outdoor air pollution. These deaths correspond to nearly 10% of the city’s total mortality, with estimates ranging to more than 13% of mortality under less conservative model assumptions. LUR models and mobile monitoring can be successfully implemented in developing country cities, thus cost-effectively improving exposure assessment for epidemiology and risk assessment. Air pollution represents a major threat to public health in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and reducing home heating emissions in traditional housing areas should be the primary focus of air pollution control efforts.
On the 23 March 2020, a country-wide COVID-19 lockdown was imposed on the UK. The following 100 days saw anthropogenic movements quickly halt, before slowly easing back to a “new” normality. In this short communication, we use data from official UK air-quality sensors (DEFRA AURN) and the UK Met Office stations to show how lockdown measures affected air quality in the UK. We compare the 100 days post-lockdown (23 March to 30 June 2020) with the same period from the previous 7 years. We find, as shown in numerous studies of other countries, the nitrogen oxides levels across the country dropped substantially (∼ 50%). However, we also find the ozone levels increased (∼ 10%), and the levels of sulphur dioxide more than doubled across the country. These changes, driven by a complex balance in the air chemistry near the surface, may reflect the influence of low humidity as suggested by Met Office data, and potentially, the reduction of nitrogen oxides and their interactions with multiple pollutants.
Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) account for nearly one fifth of mortality in young children worldwide and have been associated with exposures to indoor and outdoor sources of combustion-derived air pollution. A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant articles on air pollution and ALRI in children. Using a Bayesian approach to meta-analysis, a summary estimate of 1.12 (1.03, 1.30) increased risk in ALRI occurrence per 10 μg/m3 increase in annual average PM2.5 concentration was derived from the longer-term (subchronic and chronic) effects studies. This analysis strengthens the evidence for a causal relationship between exposure to PM2.5 and the occurrence of ALRI and provides a basis for estimating the global attributable burden of mortality due to ALRI that is not influenced by the wide variation in regional case fatality rates. Most studies, however, have been conducted in settings with relatively low levels of PM2.5. Extrapolating their results to other, more polluted, regions will require a model that is informed by evidence from studies of the effects on ALRI of exposure to PM2.5 from other combustion sources, such as secondhand smoke and household solid fuel use.
The recent pandemic (COVID-19) has seen a sweeping and surging use of products intended to clean and disinfect, such as air sprays, hand sanitizers, and surface cleaners, many of which contain fragrance. However, exposure to fragranced cleaning products has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Products can emit a range of volatile chemicals, including some classified as hazardous, but relatively few ingredients are disclosed to the public. Thus, relatively little is known about the specific emissions from these products. This study investigates the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from “pandemic products” that are being used frequently and extensively in society. In addition, among these emissions, this study identifies potentially hazardous compounds, compares so-called green and regular versions of products, and examines whether ingredients are disclosed to the public. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 26 commonly used pandemic products, including 13 regular and 13 so-called green versions, were analyzed for their volatile emissions. Product types included hand sanitizers, air disinfectants, multipurpose cleaners, and handwashing soap. All products were fragranced. The analyses found the products collectively emitted 399 VOCs with 127 VOCs classified as potentially hazardous. All products emitted potentially hazardous compounds. Comparing regular products and green products, no significant difference was found in the emissions of the most prevalent compounds. Further, among the 399 compounds emitted, only 4% of all VOCs and 11% of potentially hazardous VOCs were disclosed on any product label or safety data sheet. This study reveals that pandemic products can generate volatile emissions that could pose risks to health, that could be unrecognized, and that could be reduced, such as by using fragrance-free versions of products.
Literature comparing national ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) globally is scattered and sparse. Twenty-four hour AAQSs for particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in 96 countries were identified through literature review, an international survey, and querying an international legal database. Eighty three percent, of the 96 countries with information on the presence or absence of AAQSs, have 24-h AAQSs for either PM(10) or SO(2). Slightly more countries have 24-h AAQSs for SO(2) (76 countries) than PM(10) (69 countries). The average 24-h AAQSs for PM(10) and SO(2) are 95 μg/m(3) (95% confidence interval [CI], 82-108 μg/m(3), n = 68) and 182 μg/m(3) (95% CI, 158-205 μg/m(3), n = 73). The population-weighted average AAQS for PM(10) is 98 and 155 μg/m(3) for SO(2). The average AAQS for both PM(10) and SO(2) are substantially higher than the recommended World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline (WHO AQG) value. Several countries have promulgated AAQSs at the WHO AQG value for PM(10), but none for SO(2). Further examination in selected countries found that air quality monitoring data, existing AAQSs in other countries, environmental epidemiology studies, and the WHO AQGs are considered the most often in establishing or revising AAQSs. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11869-010-0131-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Under the rapid spread of coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) worldwide, a complete lockdown was imposed in France from March 17th to May 11th, 2020 to limit the virus spread. This lockdown affected significantly the atmospheric pollution levels due to the restrictions of human activities. In the present study, we investigate the evolution of air quality in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, focusing on nine atmospheric pollutants (NO2, NO, PM10, PM2.5, O3, VOC, CO, SO2, and isoprene). In Lyon, center of the region, the results indicated that NO2, NO, and CO levels were reduced by 67%, 78%, and 62%, respectively, resulting in a decrease in road traffic by 80%. However, O3, PM10, and PM2.5 were increased by 105%, 23%, and 53%, respectively, during the lockdown. The increase in ozone is explained by the dropping in NO and other gases linked to human activity, which consume ozone. Thus, the increase of solar radiation, sunshine, temperature, and humidity promoted the O3 formation during the lockdown. Besides, rising temperature enhances the BVOC emissions such as isoprene. In addition, volatile organic component (VOC) and SO2 remain almost stable and oxidation of these species leads to the formation of ozone and organic aerosol, which also explains the increase in PM during the lockdown. This study shows the contribution of atmospheric photochemistry to air pollution.
Lockdown in India begins from 25 March and continues until 31 May 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic situation. Due to such an extended period of lockdown for about more than 2 months resulted in 1.38 billion populations restricted themselves from mass activities that contribute to air pollution. Thus, through our quantitative approach and trend analysis, the study aims to evaluate the changes in the level of PM2.5 as a major pollutant for the top ten polluted cities in India, with a special emphasis on finding what happened to its concentration after the lockdown ended. Thus, to better understand the nature of variation in PM2.5, we divide the entire 7 months into three periods for our analysis, i.e., before lockdown (1 January to 24 March), during lockdown (25 March to 31 May), and post-lockdown or unlock 1 and 2 (1 June to 31 July). Our investigation reveals that before lockdown, all the top polluted cities of India violating the national standard of PM2.5, as the lockdown begins interestingly, all cities show a momentous reduction in PM2.5 concentration. Further, surprisingly we found that after the post-lockdown period, the concentration of PM2.5 was reduced to minimal, as the average concentration of PM2.5 for all the cities is below the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The study reveals that the lockdown has a consequence in improving overall air quality for the top polluted cities in India and further lockdown in the future with proper planning should be considered an alternative approach to restrain excessive emissions.
We examine the short-term and long-term causal effects between epidemics and electricity CO2 emissions by using panel data from 30 countries over the period of 1990 to 2017. The results show that there is bidirectional relationship between epidemics and electricity CO2 emissions, especially in OECD and Asian countries.
As we move through 2020, our world has been transformed by the spread of COVID-19 in many aspects. A large number of cities across the world entered “sleep mode” sequentially due to the stay-at-home or lockdown policies. This study exploits the impact of pandemic-induced human mobility restrictions, as the response to COVID-19 pandemic, on the urban air quality across China. Different from the “traditional” difference-in-differences analysis, a human mobility-based difference-in-differences method is used to quantify the effect of intracity mobility reductions on air quality across 325 cities in China. The model shows that the air quality index (AQI) experiences a 12.2% larger reduction in the cities with lockdown. Moreover, this reduction effect varies with different types of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO decreased by 13.1%, 15.3%, 4%, 3.3%, and 3.3%, respectively). The heterogeneity analysis in terms of different types of cities shows that the effect is greater in northern, higher income, more industrialized cities, and more economically active cities. We also estimate the subsequent health benefits following such improvement, and the expected averted premature deaths due to air pollution declines are around 26,385 to 38,977 during the sample period. These findings illuminate a new light on the role of a policy intervention in the pollution emission, while also providing a roadmap for future research on the pollution effect of COVID-19 pandemic.
The outbreak of COVID-19, a global health challenge faced by countries worldwide, led to a lockdown in India, thereby bringing down the emissions of various air pollutants. Here, we discuss the behaviour of surface ozone (O3) concentrations and its precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) at two Indian megacities namely Mumbai and Pune, closely located yet vastly differing in meteorology due to their locations. Although levels of CO, NO2, and VOC declined sharply after the lockdown in both cities, with NO2 showing the highest reduction, ozone concentration in Pune remained unaffected, whereas Mumbai exhibited a mixed trend, touching even a maximum in between the lockdown. On a diurnal scale, the magnitude of O3 levels during the lockdown period is higher at almost all hours in Mumbai, and in Pune, it is almost identical except during night hours when it is marginally higher in the lockdown period as compared to the normal period. On a whole, the pollution levels were brought down significantly which can be used as a benchmark in the future for the implementation of policies related to air quality management and emission control in Indian megacities by the policymakers. These results also can pave a way for the scientific community for local air quality modelling.