SciCombinator

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an important coenzyme that participates in various energy metabolism pathways, including glycolysis, β-oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Besides, it is a required cofactor for post-translational modifications such as ADP-ribosylation and deacetylation by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and sirtuins, respectively. Thus, NAD regulates energy metabolism, DNA damage repair, gene expression, and stress response through these enzymes. Numerous studies have shown that NAD levels decrease with aging and under disturbed nutrient conditions, such as obesity. Additionally, a decline in NAD levels is closely related to the development of various metabolic disorders, including diabetes and fatty liver disease. In addition, many studies have revealed that administration of NAD precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and nicotinamide riboside (NR), efficiently increase NAD levels in various tissues and prevent such metabolic diseases. These NAD precursors are contained in natural foods, such as cow milk, vegetables, and meats. Therefore, altered NAD metabolism can be a practical target for nutritional intervention. Recently, several human clinical trials using NAD precursors have been conducted to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy against metabolic disorders such as glucose intolerance. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the implications of NAD metabolism in metabolic diseases and discuss the outcomes of recent human clinical trials.

131

Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a key regulator of mitochondria biogenesis. Previous studies confirmed that reduced TFAM expression sensitized tumours cells to chemical therapy reagents and ionizing irradiation (IR). However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified that decreased expression of TFAM impaired the proliferation of tumour cells by inducing G1/S phase arrest and reducing the expression of E2F1, phospo-Rb, PCNA and TK1. Furthermore, we proved that knockdown of TFAM enhanced the interaction between p53 and MDM2, resulting in decreased expression of p53 and the downstream target TIGAR, and thus leading to elevated level of mitochondrial superoxide and DNA double-strand break (DSB) which were exacerbated when treated the cell with ionizing radiation. Those indicated that knockdown of TFAM could aggravate radiation induced DSB levels through affecting the production of mitochondria derived reactive oxygen species. Our current work proposed a new mechanism that TFAM through p53/TIGAR signalling to regulate the sensitivity of tumour cells to ionizing radiation. This indicated that TFAM might be a potential target for increasing the sensitization of cancer cells to radiotherapy.

131

Resveratrol increases the production of nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells by upregulating the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), stimulating eNOS enzymatic activity, and preventing eNOS uncoupling. At the same time, resveratrol inhibits the synthesis of endothelin-1 and reduces oxidative stress in both endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Pathological stimuli-induced smooth muscle cell proliferation, vascular remodeling, and arterial stiffness can be ameliorated by resveratrol as well. In addition, resveratrol also modulates immune cell function, inhibition of immune cell infiltration into the vascular wall, and improves the function of perivascular adipose tissue. All these mechanisms contribute to the protective effects of resveratrol on vascular function and blood pressure in vivo. Sirtuin 1, AMP-activated protein kinase, and estrogen receptors represent the major molecules mediating the vascular effects of resveratrol.

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Iberian primitive breeds exhibit a remarkable phenotypic diversity over a very limited geographical space. While genomic data are accumulating for most commercial cattle, it is still lacking for these primitive breeds. Whole genome data is key to understand the consequences of historic breed formation and the putative role of earlier admixture events in the observed diversity patterns.

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As an allotetraploid, most genes have multiple copies that belong to At and Dt subgenomes in cotton. Different types of gene editing tools are desirable for the functional genomic research in cotton: a plant species with very complex genome (AADD, 2n=4x=52; genome size of 2.5 Gb). CRISPR/Cpf1 (Cas12a) is a novel member of CRISPR-Cas system from Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and currently, there have three kinds of Cpf1 commonly used for genome editing, namely AsCpf1, LbCpf1 and FnCpf1. Recently, several groups have successfully applied the CRISPR/Cpf1 system in plant species such as rice, soybean, tobacco and maize. Here, we established an efficient CRISPR/Cpf1 system to expand the scope of genome editing in cotton. To my knowledge, this is the first report of the application of CRISPR/Cpf1 system for cotton genome editing with a very high efficiency (87%) and no off-target effects were detected in the most potential off-target sites. More importantly, the mutated phenotype and genotype in T0 generation were faithfully inherited to their progeny and some homozygous mutants were obtained in T1 generation. These results further support the finding that the CRISPR/Cpf1 system is highly specific and efficient system in plant genome editing, which will be a very promising alternative of CRISPR/Cas9 system for the genome editing in cotton. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

131

Genome-wide association studies have identified over 160 loci that are associated with coronary artery disease. As with other complex human diseases, risk in coronary disease loci is determined primarily by altered expression of the causal gene, due to variation in binding of transcription factors and chromatin-modifying proteins that directly regulate the transcriptional apparatus. We have previously identified a coronary disease network downstream of the disease-associated transcription factor TCF21, and in work reported here extends these studies to investigate the mechanisms by which it interacts with the AP-1 transcription complex to regulate local epigenetic effects in these downstream coronary disease loci.

131

The question of whether anesthetic, analgesic or other perioperative intervention during cancer resection surgery might influence long-term oncologic outcomes has generated much attention over the past 13 years. A wealth of experimental and observational clinical data have been published, but the results of prospective, randomized clinical trials are awaited. The European Union supports a pan-European network of researchers, clinicians and industry partners engaged in this question (COST Action 15204: Euro-Periscope). In this narrative review, members of the Euro-Periscope network briefly summarize the current state of evidence pertaining to the potential effects of the most commonly deployed anesthetic and analgesic techniques and other non-surgical interventions during cancer resection surgery on tumor recurrence or metastasis.

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Ultraselective conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE), defined as cTACE at the most distal portion of the subsubsegmental hepatic artery, is mainly performed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ≤5 cm. Distal advancement of a microcatheter enables injection of a larger volume of iodized oil into the portal vein in the limited area under non-physiological hemodynamics. As a result, the reversed portal flow into the tumor through the drainage route of the tumor that occurs when the hepatic artery is embolized is temporarily blocked. By adding gelatin sponge slurry embolization, both the hepatic artery and portal vein are embolized and not only complete necrosis of the tumor but also massive peritumoral necrosis can be achieved. Ultraselective cTACE can cure small HCCs including less hypervascular tumor portions and replace surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation in selected patients.

21

The hydrogenated black TiO2 is receiving ever-increasing atten-tion, primarily due to the ability of capturing low energy photons in the solar spectrum and the highly efficient redox reactivity for solar-driven water splitting. However, an in-depth understanding of the physical insight into the redox reactivity is still missing. In this work, we conducted the density functional theory (DFT) study based on the model obtained from spectroscopic and aber-ration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM) characterizations to reveal the synergy of H heteroatoms located at different surface sites where six-coordinated Ti (Ti6C) atom is converted from an inert trapping site to an interchange site of the photoexcited electrons. This in-depth understanding may be applicable to the rational design of highly efficient solar-harvesting catalysts.

21

Inflammation and insomnia are two types of symptoms very likely occur in life, seriously perplexing people’s work and life. How to alleviate these symptoms is an urgent medical problem. Lucidone D (LUC) is a terpene from the ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body. Triterpenoids are also the main pharmacological components of Ganoderma lucidum. In recent years, people pay more and more attention to its anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, LPS induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammatory response model was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of LUC. The results showed that LUC could significantly inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators NO, which may play a role by down-regulating the expression level of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Meanwhile, the production of TNF-α and IL-6 was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that LUC has obvious anti-inflammatory activity. Writhing and sedation tests in ICR male mice showed that LUC showed significant analgesic and sedative effects. In conclusion, these results suggest the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative effects of LUC in vitro and in vivo.