SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

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The COVID-19 pandemic has been declared a public health emergency of international concern; this has caused excessive anxiety among health care workers. In addition, publication bias and low-quality publications have become widespread, which can result in the dissemination of unreliable findings.

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Cancer cells alter their nutrition metabolism to cope the stressful environment. One important metabolism adjustment is that cancer cells activate glutaminolysis in response to the reduced carbon from glucose entering into the TCA cycle due to inactivation of several enzymes in glycolysis. An important question is how the cancer cells coordinate the changes of glycolysis and glutaminolysis. In this report, we demonstrate that the pyruvate kinase inactive dimer PKM2 facilitates activation of glutaminolysis. Our experiments show that growth stimulations promote PKM2 dimer. The dimer PKM2 plays a role in regulation of glutaminolysis by upregulation of mitochondrial glutaminase I (GLS-1). PKM2 dimer regulates the GLS-1 expression by controlling internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent c-myc translation. Growth stimulations promote PKM2 interacting with c-myc IRES-RNA, thus facilitating c-myc IRES-dependent translation. Our study reveals an important linker that coordinates the metabolism adjustment in cancer cells.

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease in the United States, affecting up to 30% of adults. There are two forms of NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), defined as 5% or greater hepatic steatosis without hepatocellular injury or fibrosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), defined as 5% or greater hepatic steatosis plus hepatocellular injury and inflammation, with or without fibrosis. Individuals with obesity are at highest risk of NAFLD. Other established risk factors include metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although NAFLD is common and typically asymptomatic, screening is not currently recommended, even in high-risk patients. NAFLD should be suspected in patients with elevated liver enzymes or hepatic steatosis on abdominal imaging that are found incidentally. Once other causes, such as excessive alcohol use and hepatotoxic medications, are excluded in these patients, risk scores or elastography tests can be used to identify those who are likely to have fibrosis that will progress to cirrhosis. Liver biopsy should be considered for patients at increased risk of fibrosis and when other liver disorders cannot be excluded with noninvasive tests. Weight loss through diet and exercise is the primary treatment for NAFLD. Other treatments, such as bariatric surgery, vitamin E supplements, and pharmacologic therapy with thiazolidinediones or glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues, have shown potential benefit; however, data are limited, and these therapies are not considered routine treatments. NAFL typically follows an indolent course, whereas patients with NASH are at higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and end-stage liver disease.

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Drugs are being prescribed with more frequency and in higher quantities. A serious adverse drug event from prescribed medications constitutes 2.4% to 16.2% of all hospital admissions. Many of the adverse drug events present intraorally or periorally in isolation or as a clinical symptom of a systemic effect. Clinical recognition and treatment of adverse drug events are important to increase patient adherence, manage drug therapy, or detect early signs of potentially serious outcomes. Oral manifestations of commonly prescribed medications include gingival enlargement, oral hyperpigmentation, oral hypersensitivity reaction, medication-related osteonecrosis, xerostomia, and other oral or perioral conditions. To prevent dose-dependent adverse drug reactions, physicians should prescribe medications judiciously using the lowest effective dose with minimal duration. Alternatively, for oral hypersensitivity reactions that are not dose dependent, quick recognition of clinical symptoms associated with time-dependent drug onset can allow for immediate discontinuation of the medication without discontinuation of other medications. Physicians can manage oral adverse drug events in the office through oral hygiene instructions for gingival enlargement, medication discontinuation for oral pigmentation, and prescription of higher fluoride toothpastes for xerostomia.

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To introduce a case of bilateral retinal artery occlusions with carotid occlusions to achieve a fuller understanding of hemodynamic flow changes and the origin of emboli.

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Particularly at transitions of care points information concerning current medication tends to be incomplete. A medication chart that contains all essential information on current therapy is likely to be a helpful tool for patients and healthcare providers. We aimed to investigate any type of benefits associated with medication charts provided at transition points.

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Intermediate-risk (submassive) pulmonary embolism (PE) describes normotensive patients with evidence of right ventricular compromise, whereas high-risk (massive) PE comprises those who have experienced hemodynamic decompensation with hypotension, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest. Together, these 2 syndromes represent the most clinically challenging manifestations of the PE spectrum. Prompt therapeutic anticoagulation remains the cornerstone of therapy for both intermediate- and high-risk PE. Patients with intermediate-risk PE who subsequently deteriorate despite anticoagulation and those with high-risk PE require additional advanced therapies, typically focused on pulmonary artery reperfusion. Strategies for reperfusion therapy include systemic fibrinolysis, surgical pulmonary embolectomy, and a growing number of options for catheter-based therapy. Multidisciplinary PE response teams can aid in selection of appropriate management strategies, especially where gaps in evidence exist and guideline recommendations are sparse.

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Objective: To investigate and analyze disease status and risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy and puerperium in our country. Methods: Clinical datas were collected from 575 patients diagnosed with VTE during pregnancy and puerperium and hospitalized in nine medical institutions in our country from January 1, 2015 to November 30, 2019, and retrospectively analyzed it’s disease status and risk factors. Results: (1) The proportion of VTE in pregnancy and puerperium was 50.6% (291/575) and 49.4% (284/575), respectively. Four patients died, the mortality rate was 0.7% (4/575). The cause of death was pulmonary embolism. (2) The location of VTE during pregnancy and puerperium was mainly in the lower limb vascular (76.2%, 438/575), followed by pulmonary vessels (7.1%, 41/575). (3) In the risk factors of VTE, cesarean section accounted for 32.3% (186/575), maternal advance age accounted for 27.7% (159/575), braking or hospitalization during pregnancy accounted for 13.6% (78/575), other risk factors accounted for more than 5% were previous VTE, obesity, preterm birth, assistant reproductive technology conception and so on, pre-eclampsia and multiple pregnancy accounted for 4.9% (28/575) respectively. In addition, some patients with VTE did not have any of the above risk factors, and the incidence rate was as high as 23.1% (133/575). Conclusions: The occurrence of VTE during pregnancy and puerperium is related to multiple risk factors, and could lead to matemal death, It is very necessary to screen VTE risk factors for all pregnant women, to make corresponding prevention and control measures.

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Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and early identification of spontaneous rupture of uterus caused by placenta percreta. Methods: The clinical data of 12 patients with spontaneous uterine rupture caused by placenta percreta and admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2014 to December 2019 were collected. The age, gestational age, gestational history, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, uterine operation history, rupture location, surgical method, treatment and outcome were analyzed. Results: (1) General condition: the median age of pregnant women was 37 years (range: 30-43 years), and the median gestational week of uterine rupture was 29+6 weeks (range: 18+3-36+3 weeks). (2) Clinical manifestation: among the 12 pregnant women, 9 showed different degrees of abdominal pain; chest distress accompanied by waist soreness, abdominal distension in 2 cases; one asymptomatic pregnant women was found with uterine rupture during elective cesarean section. Preoperative color Doppler ultrasonography indicated that 9 of the 12 pregnant women had peritoneal effusion, and 6 of them underwent diagnostic peritoneal puncture or posterior vault puncture for non-clotting blood extraction. (3) Uterine operation history and rupture location: among the 12 cases of spontaneous rupture of uterus caused by placenta percreta pregnant women, 10 had placenta previa after cesarean section, including 4 cases of rupture at the incision of the original cesarean section, 3 cases of rupture at the penetrating placental implantation of the lower segment of the anterior wall of the uterus, and 1 case of placenta percreta occurred at the myomectomy site of the right angle of the uterus. Among the 2 pregnant women with spontaneous uterine rupture caused by penetrating placental implantation without a history of cesarean section, 1 case with history of multiple abortions, and uterine rupture occurred at the bottom of the palace, 1 had rupture of placental penetrating implantation after hysteroscopic electroresection of endometrial polyps, and the uterine rupture occurred at the anterior wall of the lower segment of the uterus. (4) Maternal and fetal outcomes: 11 pregnant women were injected with suspension RBC and 1 pregnant woman was not injected with blood products. Nine cases underwent hysteroplasty and 3 cases underwent subtotal hysterectomy. There were 11 maternal survivors and 1 maternal death; 7 neonates survived and 6 stillbirths. Conclusions: Uterine rupture caused by placenta percreta is of great harm to mother and infant, due to its heterogeneity in clinical manifestations, which increases the possibility of misdiagnosis. For pregnant women with risk factors of placenta percreta, early diagnosis should be made during pregnancy. For those who have been diagnosed with placenta percreta, when there is typical or atypical uterine rupture, doctors should be alert to the occurrence of uterine rupture.

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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound formulations are selected according to different populations, with strong targeting and less adverse reactions. As a complex disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has limited efficacy in the use of conventional treatment regiments, short life cycle, high cost, many side effects, and low quality of life. It is urgent to seek new alternative therapies. Clinical practice shows that Chinese herbal compound combined with western medicine has certain therapeutic advantages, but there is no evidence of evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal compound combined with western medicine in the treatment of ALS.