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Concept: Yuan Dynasty


The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time.

Concepts: Bird, Cretaceous, Yuan Dynasty, Dinosaur, Plesiosaur, Late Cretaceous, Oviraptorosauria, Oviraptoridae


BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is an important neoplasm that is difficult to diagnose and treat; therefore, prevention is the preferable strategy. Growing evidence indicates a protective effect of breastfeeding on ovarian cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the association between lactation and the risk of ovarian cancer among southern Chinese women. DESIGN: A case-control study was undertaken in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, between August 2006 and July 2008. A validated and reliable questionnaire was used to obtain information on the months of lactation and number of children breastfed in a sample of 493 incident ovarian cancer patients and 472 hospital-based controls (mean age: 59 y). Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between breastfeeding and the risk of ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Significant inverse dose-response relations were found for both duration of lactation and the number of children breastfed. The adjusted ORs were 0.09 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.19) for women with ≥31 mo of total lactation and those with ≤10 mo of lactation and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.55) for women with ≥3 children breastfed compared with those with one child breastfed. CONCLUSION: Prolonged lactation is associated with a lower risk of ovarian cancer in parous Chinese women.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Breastfeeding, Lactation, Breast milk, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Yuan Dynasty, Warlord era


To determine the genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 302 males from 16 Chinese native cattle breeds as well as 30 Holstein males and four Burma males as controls were analysed using four Y-SNPs and two Y-STRs. In Chinese bulls, the taurine Y1 and Y2 haplogroups and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in seven, 172 and 123 individuals respectively, and these frequencies varied among the Chinese cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4%), and Y3 dominates in southern China (90.8%). Central China is an admixture zone, although Y2 predominates overall (72.0%). The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies revealed a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China. The three Y haplogroups were further classified into one Y1 haplotype, five Y2 haplotypes and one Y3 haplotype in Chinese native bulls. Due to the interplay between taurine and indicine types, Chinese cattle represent an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. The Y haplotype distribution of Chinese cattle exhibited a clear geographical structure, which is consistent with mtDNA, historical and geographical information.

Concepts: China, Genetic genealogy, Population genetics, Genealogical DNA test, Qing Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Haplotype, Haplogroup


Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define M. leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and tracking of leprosy from county to national level have been introduced.

Concepts: Single-nucleotide polymorphism, China, Yangtze River, Yunnan, Guangdong, Yuan Dynasty, East China Sea, Yi people


Larvae of a previously unknown species of gall midge were found feeding on young fruit of mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), in Guangxi Autonomous Region in southern China, causing severe damage to the crop. The new species is named Procontarinia fructiculi Jiao, Wang, Bu Kolesik, its morphology is described, the basic biology is given, and the Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene segment is sequenced and compared to other congeners. Procontarinia contains now 16 described species, each feeding on mango. All but three species cause variously shaped galls on leaves, while P. mangiferae (Felt) malforms inflorescence and young leaves, and two species feed on fruit - P. frugivora Gagné causing deep lesions and P. fructiculi sp. nov. tunnel-like holes. Of the two fruit-feeding species, P. frugivora is confined to the Philippines while the new species has thus far been recorded only from southern China.

Concepts: DNA, Nematocera, Philippines, Mango, Mangifera, Yuan Dynasty, Oak, Miao people


The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and intervention efforts.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Epidemiology, China, Chinese language, Internet, History of the Internet, Yuan Dynasty


Descriptions of Lower Devonian plants from Yunnan, South China, have revolutionized concepts of diversity and disparity in tracheophytes soon after they became established on land. Sichuan assemblages have received little attention since their discovery almost 25 years ago and require revision. With this objective, fieldwork involving detailed logging and collection of fossils was undertaken in the Longmenshan Mountain Region, Jiangyou County and yielded the two new taxa described here. They are preserved as coalified compressions and impressions that allowed morphological but not anatomical analyses. Yanmenia (Zosterophyllum) longa comb nov is based on numerous rarely branching shoots with enations resembling lycophyte microphylls, without evidence for vasculature. The presence of sporangia is equivocal making assignation to the Lycopsida conjectural. The plant was recently described as a zosterophyll, but lacks strobili. These are present in the second plant and comprise bivalved sporangia. The strobili terminate aerial stems which arise from a basal axial complex displaying diversity in branching including H- and K- forms. These features characterise the Zosterophyllopsida, although the plant differs from Zosterophyllum in valve shape. Comparisons indicate greatest similarities to the Lower Devonian Guangnania cuneata, from Yunnan, but differences, particularly in the nature of the sporangium border, require the erection of a new species, G. minor. Superficial examination of specimens already published indicate a high degree of endemism at both species and generic level, while this study shows that Yanmenia is confined to Sichuan and Guangnania is one of the very few genera shared with Yunnan, where assemblages also show a high proportion of further endemic genera. Such provincialism noted in the Chinese Lower Devonian is explained by the palaeogeographic isolation of the South China plate, but this cannot account for differences/endemism between the Sichuan and Yunnan floras. Such an enigma demands further integrated geological, palaeobotanical and palynological studies.

Concepts: Species, Plant, Yunnan, Fern, Sichuan, Ming Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Lycopodiophyta


Cultural orientation is defined as an individual’s cultural preferences when encountering imported culture while still living in the native culture. Data was analyzed from 1305 Chinese university students attending universities in Beijing, Kunming, and Wuhan. Cultural orientation was assessed with the Chinese Cultural Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses both Western and Traditional Chinese cultural orientations. The analysis used hierarchical logistic regression with nondrinkers as the reference group and controlling for demographic factors (age, gender, and urban/rural background). Western cultural orientation was found to significantly increase the odds of recent drinking. The results indicated that higher Western cultural orientation was, after gender, the second most important factor associated with Chinese college student drinking frequency. Traditional Chinese cultural orientation was not associated with drinking frequency. This study highlights an unexpected outcome of globalization on students who have not left their home cultures.

Concepts: Sociology, Culture, People's Republic of China, University, Western culture, Student, Globalization, Yuan Dynasty


Acupuncture has been widely, used in Asian countries since the Yuan Dynasty in China. Moreover, acupuncture has been reported to exhibit anti-allergy effects in many clinical trials. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness, and safety of acupuncture for anxiety treatment.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Effectiveness,, China, Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, History of China


Bretschneidera sinensis, a class-I protected wild plant in China, is a relic of the ancient Tertiary tropical flora endemic to Asia. However, little is known about its genetics and phylogeography. To elucidate the current phylogeographic patterns and infer the historical population dynamics of B. sinensis, and to make recommendations for its conservation, three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA (trnQ-rps16, rps8-rps11, and trnT-trnL) were amplified and sequenced across 256 individuals from 23 populations of B. sinensis, spanning 10 provinces of China. We recognized 13 haplotypes, demonstrating relatively high total haplotype diversity (hT = 0.739). Almost all of the variation existed among populations (98.09%, P < 0.001), but that within populations was low (1.91%, P < 0.001). Strong genetic differentiation was detected among populations (GST = 0.855, P < 0.001) with limited estimations of seed flow (Nm = 0.09), indicating that populations were strongly isolated from one another. According to SAMOVA analysis, populations of B. sinensis in China could be divided into five geographic groups: (1) eastern Yunnan to western Guangxi; (2) Guizhou-Hunan-Hubei; (3) central Guangdong; (4) northwestern Guangdong; and (5) the Luoxiao-Nanling-Wuyi -Yangming Mountain. Network analysis showed that the most ancestral haplotypes were located in the first group, i.e., the eastern Yungui Plateau and in eastern Yunnan, which is regarded as a putative glacial refugia for B. sinensis in China. B. sinensis may have expanded its range eastward from these refugia and experienced bottleneck or founder effects in southeastern China. Populations in Liping (Guizhou Province), Longsheng (Guangxi Province), Huizhou (Guangdong Province), Chongyi (Jiangxi Province), Dong-an (Hunan Province), Pingbian (Yunnan Province) and Xinning (Hunan Province) are proposed as the priority protection units.

Concepts: People's Republic of China, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yuan Dynasty, Hunan, Miao people