SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Volatile

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This study is aimed at determining the efficacy of Mentha spicata (M. spicata) and Mentha × piperita (M. × piperita) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Volatile, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Herbs, Mentha, Essential oils, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica

47

Large-scale oil production from oil sands deposits in Alberta, Canada has raised concerns about environmental impacts, such as the magnitude of air pollution emissions. This paper reports compound emission rates (E) for 69-89 nonbiogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for each of four surface mining facilities, determined with a top-down approach using aircraft measurements in the summer of 2013. The aggregate emission rate (aE) of the nonbiogenic VOCs ranged from 50 ± 14 to 70 ± 22 t/d depending on the facility. In comparison, equivalent VOC emission rates reported to the Canadian National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) using accepted estimation methods were lower than the aE values by factors of 2.0 ± 0.6, 3.1 ± 1.1, 4.5 ± 1.5, and 4.1 ± 1.6 for the four facilities, indicating underestimation in the reported VOC emissions. For 11 of the combined 93 VOC species reported by all four facilities, the reported emission rate and E were similar; but for the other 82 species, the reported emission rate was lower than E The median ratio of E to that reported for all species by a facility ranged from 4.5 to 375 depending on the facility. Moreover, between 9 and 53 VOCs, for which there are existing reporting requirements to the NPRI, were not included in the facility emission reports. The comparisons between the emission reports and measurement-based emission rates indicate that improvements to VOC emission estimation methods would enhance the accuracy and completeness of emission estimates and their applicability to environmental impact assessments of oil sands developments.

Concepts: Alberta, Pollution, Smog, Volatile organic compound, Organic compounds, Volatile, Ozone, Athabasca Oil Sands

40

A common feature of the inflammatory response in patients who have actually contracted influenza is the generation of a number of volatile products of the alveolar and airway epithelium. These products include a number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitric oxide (NO). These may be used as biomarkers to detect the disease. A portable 3-sensor array microsystem-based tool that can potentially detect flu infection biomarkers is described here. Whether used in connection with in-vitro cell culture studies or as a single exhale breathalyzer, this device may be used to provide a rapid and non-invasive screening method for flu and other virus-based epidemics.

Concepts: Inflammation, Infectious disease, Virus, Infection, Influenza, Volatile organic compound, Organic compounds, Volatile

36

Volatile compounds and extrafloral nectar are common defenses of wild plants; however, in crops they bear an as-yet underused potential for biological control of pests and diseases. Odor emission and nectar secretion are multigene traits in wild plants, and thus form difficult targets for breeding. Furthermore, domestication has changed the capacity of crops to express these traits. We propose that breeding crops for an enhanced capacity for tritrophic interactions and volatile-mediated direct resistance to herbivores and pathogens can contribute to environmentally-friendly and sustainable agriculture. Natural plant volatiles with antifungal or repellent properties can serve as direct resistance agents. In addition, volatiles mediating tritrophic interactions can be combined with nectar-based food rewards for carnivores to boost indirect plant defense.

Concepts: Agriculture, Plant, Predation, Animal, Organic farming, Livestock, Volatile, Plant defense against herbivory

31

Static headspace - multi-capillary column - gas chromatography - ion mobility spectrometry (SHS-MCC-GC-IMS) has been applied to the analysis of malodour compounds from soiled clothing (socks and T-shirts), pre- and post washing, at low temperature (20°C). Six volatile compounds (VCs) (i.e. butyric acid, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone and 2-octanone) were identified. After sensory evaluation of soiled garments they were subjected to laundering with non-perfumed washing powder. The efficiency of the laundering process was evaluated by determining the reduction of each detected volatile compound (VC) post-wash (damp) for socks and T-shirts; VC concentration reductions of between 16 and 100% were noted, irrespective of sample type. Additionally the T-shirt study considered the change in VC concentration post-wash (dry) i.e. after the drying process at ambient temperature. Overall VC concentration reductions of between 25 and 98% were noted for T-shirt samples pre-wash to post-wash (dry). Finally, a potential biochemical metabolic pathway for the formation of malodour compounds associated with bacteria in axillary sweat is proposed.

Concepts: Bacteria, Metabolism, Mass spectrometry, Volatile organic compound, Volatile, Clothing, T-shirt, Laundry

28

The treatment of hatching eggs relies on classic yet environmentally harmful decontamination methods such as formaldehyde fumigation. We evaluated bacteria-derived volatiles as a replacement within a fundamentally novel approach based on volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are naturally involved in microbial communication and antagonism due to their high antimicrobial efficiency. Pyrazine (5-isobutyl-2,3-dimethylpyrazine) was applied passively and actively in prototypes of a pre-industry-scale utilization. Altogether, pyrazine decontamination rates of up to 99.6% were observed, which is comparable to formaldehyde fumigation. While active evaporation was highly efficient in all experiments, passive treatment showed reducing effects in two of four tested groups only. These results were confirmed by visualization using LIVE/DEAD staining microscopy. The natural egg shell microbiome was characterized by an unexpected bacterial diversity of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Sphingomonadales, Streptophyta, Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales, Xanthomonadales, Rhizobiales, Bacillales, Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, and Flavobacteriales members. Interestingly, we found that especially low pyrazine concentrations lead to a microbiome shift, which can be explained by varying antimicrobial effects on different microorganisms. Micrococcus spp., which are linked to embryonic death and reduced hatchability, was found to be highly sensitive to pyrazines. Taken together, pyrazine application was shown to be a promising, environmentally friendly alternative for fumigation treatments of hatchery eggs.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Bacteria, Microbiology, Water, Microorganism, Volatile organic compound, Organic compounds, Volatile

28

Kopanisti is a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) traditional soft Greek cheese manufactured exclusively in the Cycladic island complex. It is made from raw bovine, ovine or caprine milk or a mixture of them without the addition of any lactic acid cultures. It has a spreadable texture, an intense salty and peppery taste and a strong flavour. Although Kopanisti cheese has properties similar to those of mould-ripened cheeses, its volatile compound content has never been reported. In this study the volatile compound content and lipolysis level of ten commercial Kopanisti samples were investigated.

Concepts: Acid, Milk, Cattle, Lactic acid, Pasteurization, Cheese, Volatile, Greece

28

Liquisolid technique is one of the methods used to improve the dissolution rate of the poorly water soluble drugs utilizing non volatile liquids.

Concepts: Temperature, Solubility, Phase, Solution, Carbonate, Solvation, Volatile, Henry's law

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Greenshell™ mussels (Perna canaliculus) were dry-stored at 6.44±0.54°C for 8 days during which time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored using SPME GC-MS. Thirty-four VOCs were identified in homogenised mussel meat and 29 in the mussel liquor (i.e. the seawater enclosed in the mantle cavity). Of the 34 VOCs identified 20 were reliably identified throughout the storage treatment and 9 were found to change in relative concentration in homogenised mussel meat. Dimethyl sulphide, 1-penten-3-ol, 1-hexen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-ol increased during storage, whereas pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-undecen-2-one decreased. In the mussel liquor, dimethyl sulphide was undetectable pre-storage, becoming detectable after 2 days, and a large increase was noted after 6 days. SPME GC-MS was a useful tool for monitoring VOC profiles of Greenshell™ mussels and could aid in the development of technologies that monitor and improve product quality and consistency.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Laboratory techniques, Solid phase microextraction, Volatile organic compound, Organic compounds, Mussel, Volatile, New Zealand green-lipped mussel

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To clarify the relationship between the volatile compounds present in roasted coffee beans and psychological stress, we investigated the stress-reducing potential of coffee volatiles in mice using a variety of behavioral pharmacology methods. In the elevated plus-maze test, exposure to coffee volatiles increased the time spent in and the number of entries into the open arms without increasing spontaneous locomotor activity. Pentobarbital-induced sleep time was prolonged by volatile exposure. No significant effects were detected in the open-field or forced-swim tests. These results suggest that coffee volatiles lower the arousal level and exert anti-anxiety-like, stress-reducing effects in mice.

Concepts: Sleep, Coffee, Caffeine, Volatile, Coffea arabica, Coffea, Coffee bean, Coffee roasting