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Concept: Veterinary medicine


This is the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis of rabies in Costa Rica. We characterized the occurrence of the disease and demonstrated its endemic nature in this country. In Costa Rica, as in other countries in Latin America, hematophagous vampire bats are the primary wildlife vectors transmitting the rabies virus to cattle herds. Between 1985 and 2014, a total of 78 outbreaks of bovine rabies was reported in Costa Rica, with documented cases of 723 dead cattle. Of cattle outbreaks, 82% occurred between 0 and 500 meters above sea level, and seasonality could be demonstrated on the Pacific side of the country, with significantly more outbreaks occurring during the wet season. A total of 1588 animal samples, or an average of 55 samples per year, was received by the veterinary authority (SENASA) for rabies diagnostic testing at this time. Of all samples tested, 9% (143/1588) were positive. Of these, 85.6% (125/1588) were from cattle; four dogs (0.3% [4/1588]) were diagnosed with rabies in this 30-year period. Simultaneously, an extremely low number (n = 3) of autochthonous rabies cases were reported among human patients, all of which were fatal. However, given the virus' zoonotic characteristics and predominantly fatal outcome among both cattle and humans, it is extremely important for healthcare practitioners and veterinarians to be aware of the importance of adequate wound hygiene and postexpositional rabies prophylaxis when dealing with both wild and domestic animal bites.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Spanish language, Veterinary medicine, Bat, Rabies, Latin America, Nicaragua, Costa Rica


The loss of a companion animal is recognised as being associated with experiences of grief by the owner, but it is unclear how other animals in the household may be affected by such a loss. Our aim was to investigate companion animals' behavioural responses to the loss of a companion through owner-report. A questionnaire was distributed via, and advertised within, publications produced by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) across Australia and New Zealand, and through a selection of veterinary clinics within New Zealand. A total of 279 viable surveys were returned pertaining to 159 dogs and 152 cats. The two most common classes of behavioural changes reported for both dogs and cats were affectionate behaviours (74% of dogs and 78% of cats) and territorial behaviours (60% of dogs and 63% of cats). Both dogs and cats were reported to demand more attention from their owners and/or display affiliative behaviour, as well as spend time seeking out the deceased’s favourite spot. Dogs were reported to reduce the volume (35%) and speed (31%) of food consumption and increase the amount of time spent sleeping (34%). Cats were reported to increase the frequency (43%) and volume (32%) of vocalisations following the death of a companion. The median duration of reported behavioural changes in both species was less than 6 months. There was consensus that the behaviour of companion animals changed in response to the loss of an animal companion. These behavioural changes suggest the loss had an impact on the remaining animal.

Concepts: Psychology, New Zealand, Behavior, Human behavior, Veterinary medicine, Dog, Pet


Much recent work has focused on occupational stress in veterinary medicine, although little is known about the possible contribution of client-based factors. Clients providing care for a companion animal with protracted illness are likely to experience ‘caregiver burden’ and reduced psychosocial functioning, which may ultimately lead to increased veterinarian stress. This cross-sectional observational study assessed caregiver burden and psychosocial function in 238 owners of a dog or cat, comparing owners of an animal with chronic or terminal diseases (n=119) with healthy controls blindly matched for owner age/sex and animal species (n=119). Results showed greater burden, stress and symptoms of depression/anxiety, as well as poorer quality of life, in owners of companion animals with chronic or terminal disease (p<0.001 for all). Higher burden was correlated with reduced psychosocial function (p<0.001 for all). Owners of a sick companion animal exhibit elevated caregiver burden, which is linked to poorer psychosocial functioning. This knowledge may help veterinarians understand and more effectively handle client distress in the context of managing the challenges of sick companion animal caregiving. Future work is needed to determine whether clients with this presentation impact veterinarian stress and how burden in this population might be reduced.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Knowledge, Veterinary medicine, Dog, Pet, Veterinarian, Terminal illness


Gastric impaction in the horse is poorly described in the veterinary literature.

Concepts: Mammal, Horse, Veterinary medicine, Veterinarian, Horse colic, Wild horse, Odd-toed ungulate


Treatment of immune-mediated disease in dogs and cats continues to evolve as new therapies are introduced or adapted from human medicine. Glucocorticoids remain the first-line therapy for many of the immune-mediated or inflammatory diseases of cats and dogs. The focus of this article is to provide an update on some of the common immunosuppressive therapies used in small animal veterinary medicine. The goals of therapy are to induce disease remission through the inhibition of inflammation and the modulation of lymphocyte function.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Disease, Infectious disease, Infection, Cure, Therapy, Veterinary medicine


Diminazene aceturate and Antipyrine combination therapy is widely used in veterinary medicine. A simple reverse HPLC method for the analysis of samples of a ready injectable formulation containing a mixture of active ingredients and inactive excipients has been developed. The HPLC analysis was carried out using a reversed phase (RP)-C18 (250 mm×4.0 mm, 5 μm) column. The isocratic mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, phosphate buffer and hexane sulfonate; the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min and ultraviolet detection was at 291 nm. This method was validated in accordance with FDA and ICH guidelines and showed good linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and the system suitability results were within the acceptance criteria. A stability-indicating study was also carried out and indicated that this method could be used for purity and degradation evaluation of these formulations.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Solubility, Mixture, High performance liquid chromatography, Solvent, Pharmaceutical drug, Veterinary medicine


Anthelmintic treatment of nematode infections remains the mainstay of worm control in farm and companion animals. However, control is threatened by the occurrence of drug resistant nematodes. In recent years, three new anthelmintics have been introduced to the market. Here, we describe the main features including mode of action, availability, spectrum, dose, tolerability, safety, and resistance of emodepside, monepantel, and derquantel.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Oncology, Caenorhabditis elegans, Praziquantel, Veterinary medicine, Pet, Anthelmintic, Emodepside


Going to the veterinary clinic is a stressful experience for most cats as they feel threatened when entering a new and confined environment. The aim of this research was to investigate if Feliway spray, when used on the table in the consultation room, can decrease cats' stress and ease their handling.

Concepts: Cat, Veterinary medicine, Veterinarian, The Table


Propolis is a resinous material with complex chemical structure, produced by bees using plant sources, displaying a wide spectrum of biological activities. Many studies have reported the use of this compound in pharmaceutical, medicinal, veterinary and dentistry areas, and the results have reported its pharmacological activities. Moreover, several propolis delivery systems have been proposed and their properties evaluated, indicating that they can be used. On the other hand, considering its chemical and physical characteristics, propolis could be used as a material to produce micro/nano-structured pharmaceutical formulations. This work reviews the recent studies of development of micro/nanostructured systems using propolis or its byproduct. In addition, patents were reviewed and categorized.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Chemistry, Chemical substance, Chemical compound, Pharmaceutical drug, Veterinary medicine, Pharmacy


This study was conducted to investigate the clinical data of two cases of canine sialolithiasis and to analyze 29 cases identified in the Veterinary Medical Database by year of admission, breed, gender, and age. Medical records from the University of Missouri Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital were reviewed and two dogs diagnosed with sialolithiasis (calcium oxalate) were identified between 1990 and 2010. The two dogs had cervical or pharyngeal sialocele and were successfully treated by sialolith removal and concurrent sialoadenectomy. Signalments of dogs with sialolithiasis between 1964 and 2010 were collected from the Veterinary Medical Database and evaluated. Several breeds of dogs were represented and the 10 to <15 yr old age group was shown to have significant association with sialolithiasis. Sialolithiasis is a rare veterinary condition. In this study, older dogs were at higher risk. In dogs, concurrent sialocele was common and good outcome could be expected after surgical removal of sialoliths with concurrent sialoadenectomy.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Old age, Aging, Veterinary medicine, Selective breeding, Dog breed, Landrace