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Concept: Vegetarian cuisine


There is growing evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality. Few studies, however, specifically explored consuming raw versus cooked vegetables in relation to health and mortality outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of all-cause mortality with: a) fruit and vegetable consumption, either combined or separately; b) the consumption of raw versus cooked vegetables in a large cohort of Australian middle-aged and older adults.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fruit, Tomato, Vegetable, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Cooking, Cucumber


Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people’s food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population’s food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fruit, Tomato, Vegetable, Vegetarian cuisine, Supermarket, Grocery store, Grocer


This paper analyses the Austrian water footprint of consumption (WF(cons)) for different diets: the current diet, a healthy diet (based upon the dietary recommendations issued by the German nutrition society, or DGE), a vegetarian diet and a combined diet between both latter diets. As in many western countries, the current Austrian diet consists of too many products from the groups sugar, crop oils, meat, animal fats, milk, milk products and eggs and not enough products from the groups cereals, rice, potatoes, vegetables and fruit. Especially the consumption of animal products accounts for high WF amounts. These diets result in a substantial reduction (range 922-1,362 l per capita per day (lcd)) of the WF(cons) for agricultural products, which is currently 3,655 lcd. However, the Austrian water footprint of agricultural production (WF(prod) = 2,066 lcd) still remains lower than even the WF(cons) for a vegetarian diet (2,293 lcd). As a result the country is a net virtual water importer regarding agricultural products for all analysed scenarios.

Concepts: Agriculture, Nutrition, Fat, Meat, Vegetarian cuisine, Diets, Vegetarianism, Veganism


The amount of the trace elements As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn was measured in top soils and edible mushrooms, Boletus edulis, Macrolepiota procera, collected at five distinct green microhabitats inside the Lucca province, North-Central Italy (years 2008-2009). Results showed a top soil element content within the Italian statutory limits. Concerning the amount of mushroom elements, we observed significant species-differences obtaining higher levels of Ni, Rb, and Se in B. edulis or As, Pb, Cu in M. procera. Bioaccumulation factors (BCFs: element in mushroom/element in soil) resulted species-dependent and element-selective: in particular, B. edulis preferentially accumulated Se (BCFs varying from 14 to 153), while M. procera mainly concentrated Cu (BCFs varying from 5 to 15). As well, both species displayed between-site BCF differences. By a multivariate principal component approach, cluster analysis (CA), we could resolve two main clusters of soil element composition, corresponding to the most ecologically divergent sites. Besides, CA showed no cluster relating to element contents of B. edulis at the different collection sites, while a separation in groups was found for M. procera composition with respect to harvesting locations, suggesting uptake systems, in this saprotrophic species, sensitive to microhabitat. Regarding consumer safety, Cd, Hg, Pb levels resulted sometime relevant in present samples, never reaching values from current literature on mushrooms collected in urban-polluted areas. Our findings encourage a deeper assessment of the molecular mechanisms of metal intake by edible mushrooms, encompassing genetic biochemical and geo-ecological variables, with particular awareness to element bioavailability in soils and fungi.

Concepts: Vegetarian cuisine, Boletus edulis, Mushroom, Edible mushroom, Agaricales, Tuscany, Edible fungi, Mushroom hunting


Direct-to-consumer marketing efforts, such as community-supported agriculture (CSA), have been proposed as a solution for disparities in fruit and vegetable consumption. Evaluations of such efforts have been limited. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a CSA intervention to increase household inventory of fruits and vegetables and fruit and vegetable consumption of residents of an underresourced community.

Concepts: Pea, Fruit, Tomato, Vegetable, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Cucumber


Browning is one of the most common postharvest changes in button mushrooms, which often results in economic losses. Phenolic compounds, which are associated with browning, were extracted from the non-bruised and bruised skin tissue of various button mushrooms with a sulphite containing solution and analysed with UHPLC-PDA-MS. In total, 34 phenolic compounds were detected. Only small differences in the total phenolic content between bruising-tolerant and sensitive strains were observed. The contents of γ-L-glutaminyl-4-hydroxybenzene (GHB) and γ-L-glutaminyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzene (GDHB) correlated with bruising-sensitivity, for example a R(2) of 0.85 and 0.98 was found for non-bruised brown strains, respectively. In non-bruised skin tissue of the strains with brown caps, the GHB and GDHB contents in sensitive strains were on average 20 times and 15 times higher, respectively, than in tolerant strains. GHB and GDHB likely participate in the formation of brown coloured GHB-melanin, which seemed the predominant pathway in bruising-related discoloration of button mushrooms.

Concepts: Fungus, Vegetarian cuisine, Basidiomycota, Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricales, Agaricus, Agaricus campestris


Abstract Purpose. To determine whether Transtheoretical Model (TTM) constructs differ between individuals making successful versus unsuccessful stage transitions for consumption of five or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day and thus provide a useful basis for designing health promotion interventions. Design. Longitudinal, observational study. A randomly selected, multiethnic cohort of adults assessed at 6-month intervals over 2 years. Setting. General community, Hawaii. Subjects. There were 700 participants (62.6% female; mean = 47 ± 17.1 years; 31.1% Asian, 22.1% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 35.0% Caucasian; 25.1% participation rate). Measures. Stage of readiness, experiential and behavioral processes of change, pros, cons, self-efficacy, and self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption. Analysis. The study used t-tests to determine which TTM variable scores differed consistently between those making “successful” versus “unsuccessful ” stage transitions from precontemplation, preparation, and maintenance. Sample sizes for contemplation and action prohibited similar analyses. Results. Compared to those remaining in precontemplation, individuals successfully progressing from precontemplation showed significantly greater use of behavioral processes (collectively and self-liberation) and consciousness raising (p < .001). However, only self-liberation demonstrated significant differences consistently over time. Conclusion. This longitudinal investigation reveals that TTM behavioral processes, particularly self-liberation, predict successful transition out of precontemplation for adult fruit and vegetable consumption, suggesting that public health messages tailored according to these TTM variables may be effective for this group. However, for adults prepared to adopt or maintain fruit and vegetable consumption, tailoring based on variables from other theories is needed.

Concepts: Scientific method, Public health, Behavior, Fruit, Tomato, Vegetable, Vegetarian cuisine, Transtheoretical model


Globally, fruit and vegetable intakes are well below recommendations despite ample evidence to link insufficient intake with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Intakes of fruits and vegetables in the general population differ between males and females, and although there is growing evidence of intakes in men and women during weight loss, evidence that directly compares intakes in men and women during weight loss is lacking. This study aimed to identify any differences between males and females in fruit and vegetable intakes and plasma carotenoid concentrations during weight loss, and determine whether there is a relationship between any changes in fruit and vegetable intakes and weight change in both males and females.

Concepts: Nutrition, Gender, Fruit, Tomato, Vegetable, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Cucumber


Public Health England has set a definition for free sugars in the UK in order to estimate intakes of free sugars in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. This follows the recommendation from the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in its 2015 report on Carbohydrates and Health that a definition of free sugars should be adopted. The definition of free sugars includes: all added sugars in any form; all sugars naturally present in fruit and vegetable juices, purées and pastes and similar products in which the structure has been broken down; all sugars in drinks (except for dairy-based drinks); and lactose and galactose added as ingredients. The sugars naturally present in milk and dairy products, fresh and most types of processed fruit and vegetables and in cereal grains, nuts and seeds are excluded from the definition.

Concepts: Nutrition, Glucose, Milk, Cereal, Fruit, Carbohydrate, Sugar, Vegetarian cuisine


The aim of this study was to estimate the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis DNA in fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms in rural areas of Varmia-Masuria Province, Poland, which is the region with the highest number of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) cases in this country. Recovery tests showed that E. multilocularis DNA is detectable in samples contaminated with at least 100 eggs of this tapeworm. In total, 103 environmental fruit, vegetable, and mushroom samples collected in forests, plantations, and kitchen gardens were analyzed using nested PCR assay based on the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. The parasite DNA was detected in 23.3 % of the samples. Sequencing confirmed that the obtained PCR products represented E. multilocularis. This study is the first environmental survey of the presence of E. multilocularis DNA in fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms intended for consumption. The results clearly demonstrate that it may be a direct source of human infections and shows the need to educate the public about the threat, especially people living in at-risk areas.

Concepts: DNA, Bacteria, RNA, Ribosomal RNA, Fruit, Vegetable, Vegetarian cuisine, Echinococcus multilocularis