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Concept: Vaginitis


Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection, causing an abnormal vaginal discharge and/or odour in up to 50% of sufferers. Recurrence is common following recommended treatment. There are limited data on women’s experience of bacterial vaginosis, and the impact on their self-esteem, sexual relationships and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of recurrent bacterial vaginosis on women.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Philosophy of science, Gynecology, Vagina, Candidiasis, Bacterial vaginosis, Human flora, Vaginitis


Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is a poorly understood chronic vaginitis with an unknown etiology. Symptoms of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis include copious yellowish discharge, vulvovaginal discomfort, and dyspareunia. Cervical ectropion, the presence of glandular columnar cells on the ectocervix, has not been reported as a cause of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. Although cervical ectropion can be a normal clinical finding, it has been reported to cause leukorrhea, metrorrhagia, dyspareunia, and vulvovaginal irritation. Patients with cervical ectropion and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis are frequently misdiagnosed with candidiasis or bacterial vaginosis and repeatedly treated without resolution of symptoms. We report the case of a 34-year-old woman with a 4-year history of profuse yellowish discharge and dyspareunia. Upon presentation, her symptoms and laboratory results met the criteria for desquamative inflammatory vaginitis, but the standard treatments did not provide long-lasting relief. As a last resort, cryotherapy (cryosurgery) of her cervix was performed for treatment of her cervical ectropion, which provided complete resolution of her symptoms. Mitchell L, King M, Brillhart H, Goldstein A. Cervical Ectropion May Be a Cause of Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis. Sex Med 2017;X:XX-XX.

Concepts: Epithelium, Gynecology, Cervix, Vagina, Candidiasis, Bacterial vaginosis, Human flora, Vaginitis


OBJECTIVE: Reduced CD16 expression is associated with neutrophil apoptosis. This study aimed to compare CD16 expression on neutrophils in the vagina from women with normal bacterial flora and with vaginitis. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal lavages were sampled from volunteers diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV, n=34), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC, n=43), BV plus VC (BV+VC, n=14), and normal flora (NF, n=51). Neutrophils were identified by expression of CD15, CD16 and CD24 surface markers as assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD16 expression was elevated in neutrophils from women with vaginitis (BV p<0.0001; VC p=0.01; BV+VC p=0.0027) as compared to women with NF. CONCLUSION: The reduction in CD16 down-regulation is consistent with prolonged neutrophil viability and activity in the vagina of women with vaginitis. This may contribute to greater microbial clearance and, conversely, with inflammation-associated pathology.

Concepts: Bacteria, Flow cytometry, Gynecology, Vagina, Candidiasis, Bacterial vaginosis, Human flora, Vaginitis


Vaginitis may be diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, or coinfection. A new molecular test assays the vaginal microbiome and organisms that cause three common infections. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of the investigational test for vaginal swabs collected by patients (self) or clinicians. The primary and secondary outcomes were to compare the investigational test with reference methods for the three most common causes of vaginitis and compare clinician-collected with self-collected swabs.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Gynecology, Vagina, Candidiasis, Bacterial vaginosis, Human flora, Vaginitis


Vaginal infection in early pregnancy is associated with preterm birth. This study evaluates long-term results after integrating an antenatal screen-and-treat program for asymptomatic vaginal infections into routine pregnancy care.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Infection, Cervix, Vagina, Candidiasis, Vaginitis


Vaginal complaints are one of the most common reasons women seek the advice of a health care provider. Uncomplicated infections such as vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, or trichomoniasis are easy to diagnose and treat. However, about 8% of patients will have a more complicated course with failure to respond to treatment or rapid recurrence of symptoms. Understanding the need for a methodical, diagnostic approach to help these women with recurrent or refractory cases of vaginal symptoms will aid the clinician achieve successful patient outcomes.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medical terms, Illness, Vagina, Candidiasis, Bacterial vaginosis, Vaginitis


The stem bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville is popularly used as anti-inflammatory, astringent and in the treatment of wounds and vaginal infections. Several pharmacological activities have been scientifically proven by “in vitro” and “in vivo” experimental assays for antibacterial, antiviral, antiprotozoan, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

Concepts: Immune system, In vivo, In vitro, Tea, Vagina, Tannin, Candidiasis, Vaginitis


The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of clinical and microbiological investigations available in limited resource settings for an effective diagnosis of vaginal infections/abnormal vaginal microbiota among pregnant women. As an outcome of the study we intended to find the association of various vaginal infections during pregnancy with preterm delivery. Pregnant women presenting for routine antenatal care at an antenatal clinic in south India were enrolled in the study. Each participant underwent clinical and microbiological examinations for the diagnosis of vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and trichomoniasis. In addition, Gram’s stained high-vaginal smears were evaluated for the presence of partial BV and vaginitis. Diagnostic accuracies of clinical diagnosis for the aforementioned infections was determined in comparison with gold standard microbiological diagnosis. Proportion of women with vulvovaginal infections were estimated using descriptive statistics and incidence risk ratio for preterm delivery with each form of the infection was estimated using univariate analysis. A total of 790 pregnant women were recruited in the study. Positive predictive values of clinical diagnosis for BV, VVC and Trichomoniasis in comparison with reference method were 72.7, 33.5 and 37.6% respectively. Partial BV (3.2%) and vaginitis due to mixed bacterial etiology (9.4%) were per exclusionem diagnosed using the microbiological smear examination. Microbiological diagnosis of BV and vaginitis were found to have a statistically significant association with preterm delivery. Effective diagnosis of vaginal infections/abnormal vaginal microbiota associated with preterm delivery can be achieved by the adjunct of microbiological smear examination of the vaginal smears to the clinical examination in limited resource settings.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Obstetrics, Gynecology, Vagina, Candidiasis, Bacterial vaginosis, Vaginitis


Vaginal infections are responsible for a large proportion of gynaecological outpatient visits. Those are bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC), aerobic vaginitis (AV) associated with aerobic bacteria, and mixed infections. Usual treatments show similar acceptable short-term efficacy, but frequent recurrences and increasing microbial resistance are unsolved issues. Furthermore, vaginal infections are associated with a variety of serious adverse outcomes in pregnancy and generally have a major impact on quality of life. Identifying the correct therapy can be challenging for the clinician, particularly in mixed infections.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Gynecology, Microorganism, Vagina, Candidiasis, Bacterial vaginosis, Vaginitis


A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) containing Nestorone® (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles) is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora.

Concepts: Hormonal contraception, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Menstrual cycle, Vagina, Candidiasis, Vaginitis, Vaginal ring, Ethinylestradiol