Experimental studies in guinea pigs demonstrated that influenza virus transmission is strongly modulated by temperature and humidity. A number of epidemiological studies have followed up on these findings and revealed robust associations between influenza incidence in temperate regions and local conditions of humidity and temperature, offering a long-awaited explanation for the wintertime seasonality of influenza in these locales. Despite recent progress, important questions remain as to the mechanism(s) by which humidity and/or temperature affect transmission.
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in U.S. prisoners is high; however, HCV testing and treatment are rare. Infected inmates released back into society contribute to the spread of HCV in the general population. Routine hepatitis screening of inmates followed by new therapies may reduce ongoing HCV transmission.
The community-based AERLI intervention provided training and education to people who inject drugs (PWID) about HIV and HCV transmission risk reduction, with a focus on drug injecting practices, other injection-related complications, and access to HIV and HCV testing and care. We hypothesized that in such a population where HCV prevalence is very high and where few know their HCV serostatus, AERLI would lead to increased HCV testing.
Neural adaptations to strength training have long been recognized, but knowledge of mechanisms remains incomplete. Using novel techniques and a design which limited experimental bias, this study examined if 4 weeks of strength training alters voluntary activation and corticospinal transmission.
The effectiveness of biosecurity methods to mitigate the transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) via farm personnel or contaminated fomites is poorly understood. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of biosecurity procedures directed at minimizing transmission via personnel following different biosecurity protocols using a controlled experimental setting.
We proposed and designed a compact unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on metal/insulator/metal (MIM) plasmonic waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. The MZI was fabricated by a lithography technique and we provide, for the first time experimental evaluation of the transmission performance of the MZI using MIM PWGs. The experimental results were in good agreement with the numerical simulations. The proposed structure could be considered as a key device for on-chip optical integrated circuits.
Evolution of Couples Voluntary Counseling and Testing for HIV in Rwanda: From Research to Public Health Practice
- Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
- Published over 4 years ago
Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (CVCT) is a WHO-recommended intervention for prevention of heterosexual HIV transmission which very few African couples have received. We report the successful nationwide implementation of CVCT in Rwanda.
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs collect socio-demographic and HIV testing information similar to that collected by unlinked anonymous testing sero-surveillance (UAT) in antenatal settings. Zimbabwe evaluated the utility of PMTCT data in replacing UAT.
It would be useful to understand which populations are not reached by home-based HIV-1 testing and counselling (HTC) to improve strategies aimed at linking these individuals to care and reducing rates of onward HIV transmission.
The need for increasingly energyefficient and miniaturized bio-devices for ubiquitous health monitoring has paved the way for considerable advances in the investigation of techniques such as intrabody communication (IBC), which uses human tissues as a transmission medium. However, IBC still poses technical challenges regarding the measurement of the actual gain through the human body. The heterogeneity of experimental setups and conditions used together with the inherent uncertainty caused by the human body make the measurement process even more difficult.