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Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Typography

175

The purpose of this study was to determine if Optim™, a unique copolymer of silicone and polyurethane, protects Riata ST Optim and Durata implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads (SJM, St Jude Medical Inc., Sylmar, CA, USA) from abrasions that cause lead failure.

Concepts: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, Typography, Jude the Apostle, St. Jude Medical, Epistle of Jude

168

Blistering in epidermolysis bullosa simplex type Dowling-Meara (EBS-DM) is associated with an inflammatory phenotype, which can be disrupted by diacerein in vitro. In this pilot study we hypothesized, that a topical formulation of diacerein 1% reduces blistering. Five patients initially applied diacerein underneath both armpits. Then, each participant received 1% diacerein-cream for one armpit, and placebo for the other (randomized withdrawal). The number of blisters was reduced significantly (left: -78%; right: -66% of baseline) within two weeks and remained significantly below the initial level even during withdrawal in four patients. These findings point to a relevant effect of diacerein and provide important information for a confirmative study.

Concepts: Typography, Typeface, Axilla, Epidermolysis bullosa

91

The most recent edition of the American Psychological Association (APA) Manual states that two spaces should follow the punctuation at the end of a sentence. This is in contrast to the one-space requirement from previous editions. However, to date, there has been no empirical support for either convention. In the current study, participants performed (1) a typing task to assess spacing usage and (2) an eye-tracking experiment to assess the effect that punctuation spacing has on reading performance. Although comprehension was not affected by punctuation spacing, the eye movement record suggested that initial processing of the text was facilitated when periods were followed by two spaces, supporting the change made to the APA Manual. Individuals' typing usage also influenced these effects such that those who use two spaces following a period showed the greatest overall facilitation from reading with two spaces.

Concepts: Effect, Affect, Eye, Typography, Period, American Psychological Association, Edition, Punctuation

63

Age-related macular degeneration in its neovascular form (NV AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among adults above the age of 60. Epidemiological data suggest that in men, overall abdominal obesity is the second most important environmental risk factor after smoking for progression to late-stage NV AMD To date, the mechanisms that underscore this observation remain ill-defined. Given the impact of high-fat diets on gut microbiota, we investigated whether commensal microbes influence the evolution of AMD Using mouse models of NV AMD, microbiotal transplants, and other paradigms that modify the gut microbiome, we uncoupled weight gain from confounding factors and demonstrate that high-fat diets exacerbate choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by altering gut microbiota. Gut dysbiosis leads to heightened intestinal permeability and chronic low-grade inflammation characteristic of inflammaging with elevated production of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and VEGF-A that ultimately aggravate pathological angiogenesis.

Concepts: Inflammation, Epidemiology, Bacteria, Gut flora, Obesity, Typography, Macular degeneration, Choroidal neovascularization

45

Amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42) plays a central role in Alzheimer’s disease. The link between structure, assembly and neuronal toxicity of this peptide is of major current interest but still poorly defined. Here, we explored this relationship by rationally designing a variant form of Aβ1-42 (vAβ1-42) differing in only two amino acids. Unlike Aβ1-42, we found that the variant does not self-assemble, nor is it toxic to neuronal cells. Moreover, while Aβ1-42 oligomers impact on synaptic function, vAβ1-42 does not. In a living animal model system we demonstrate that only Aβ1-42 leads to memory deficits. Our findings underline a key role for peptide sequence in the ability to assemble and form toxic structures. Furthermore, our non-toxic variant satisfies an unmet demand for a closely related control peptide for Aβ1-42 cellular studies of disease pathology, offering a new opportunity to decipher the mechanisms that accompany Aβ1-42-induced toxicity leading to neurodegeneration.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Protein, Neuron, Amino acid, Model organism, Peptide, Toxicity, Typography

30

We elevate our constructions to a special status in our minds. This ‘IKEA’ effect leads us to believe that our creations are more valuable than items that are identical, but constructed by another. This series of studies utilises a developmental perspective to explore why this bias exists. Study 1 elucidates the ontogeny of the IKEA effect, demonstrating an emerging bias at age 5, corresponding with key developmental milestones in self-concept formation. Study 2 assesses the role of effort, revealing that the IKEA effect is not moderated by the amount of effort invested in the task in 5-to-6-year olds. Finally, Study 3 examines whether feelings of ownership moderate the IKEA effect, finding that ownership alone cannot explain why children value their creations more. Altogether, results from this study series are incompatible with existing theories of the IKEA bias. Instead, we propose a new framework to examine biases in decision making. Perhaps the IKEA effect reflects a link between our creations and our self-concept, emerging at age 5, leading us to value them more positively than others' creations.

Concepts: Scientific method, Critical thinking, Risk, Ontology, Typography, Perspective, Bias, IKEA

28

Rational ligand design: Schaeffer’s acid analogues were identified as novel inhibitors of M. tuberculosis type II dehydroquinase, a key enzyme of the shikimate pathway. Their likely binding mode was predicted using a combination of ensemble docking and flexible active site residues. Potentially, this scaffold could provide a good starting point for the design of antitubercular agents.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Tuberculosis, Enzyme inhibitor, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Drug discovery, Medicinal chemistry, Typography

27

Objective: To investigate the content and design preferences of printed health education leaflets among Arab patients. Materials and Methods: A survey questionnaire to 17 subjects (women: n = 8, men: n = 9; age range 17-70 years) and three focus-group discussions (total 16 participants) were used to assess preferences by showing samples of Arabic health education materials. The questionnaire was administered by interviewers. For the focus-group discussions, the sessions were conducted by a trained interviewer, audio recorded and analyzed thematically. The subjects' educational level was from no formal schooling to university level. Results: In survey component, all patients preferred photographs over clipart. Typeface (‘font’) preferences were for Simplified Arabic in 8 subjects (47%) and Mudir MT in 7 (41%); the 16-point font size was favored by 14 (82%) patients. In the three focus-group discussions, themes that participants expressed included use of standard Arabic with local dialects, short sentences, and culturally appropriate advice with practical and quantifiable examples. Conclusions: The participants preferred health education materials to be color trifold brochures illustrated with pictures and not clipart and written in Arabic using the Simplified Arabic font in 16-point size.

Concepts: Typography, Arabic language, Typeface, Structured interview, Varieties of Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Classical Arabic, Arabic alphabet

26

Regioselective addition across the alkynes has been achieved in a silver-catalyzed protocol utilizing Langlois reagent (CF3SO2Na) and molecular O2 to access medicinally active α-trifluoromethyl ketone compounds. This method was successful in producing α-trifluoromethyl ketone in heterocyclic scaffolds, which are incompatible with earlier strategies. Experimental findings suggest a mechanism involving α-styrenyl radical intermediate and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent, which leads to crystallographically characterized N-methylsuccinimide. Isotope labeling, kinetic studies, and intermediate trapping further helped to gain insight into this energy-demanding process.

Concepts: Oxygen, Functional group, Matter, Molecule, Alkene, Typography, Mechanism

25

In this study we give a preliminary study of a rationally designed small peptide, which is based on the enamel matrix protein amelogenin, to investigate its effect on remineralization of initial enamel caries lesions.

Concepts: Protein, Typography, Tooth development, Dental caries, Tooth enamel