Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Type


Whether light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is protective against stroke, and whether any association differs by stroke type, is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from prospective studies on alcohol drinking and stroke types.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Meta-analysis, Drinking culture, Type, Seventh-day Adventist Church


To examine the emotions associated with drinking different types of alcohol, explore whether these emotions differ by sociodemographics and alcohol dependency and whether the emotions associated with different drink types influence people’s choice of drinks in different settings.

Concepts: Domestic violence, Alcoholism, Alcoholic beverage, Drinking culture, Type, Drink, Drinking, Kefir


Albedo-a primary control on surface melt-varies considerably across the Greenland Ice Sheet yet the specific surface types that comprise its dark zone remain unquantified. Here we use UAV imagery to attribute seven distinct surface types to observed albedo along a 25 km transect dissecting the western, ablating sector of the ice sheet. Our results demonstrate that distributed surface impurities-an admixture of dust, black carbon and pigmented algae-explain 73% of the observed spatial variability in albedo and are responsible for the dark zone itself. Crevassing and supraglacial water also drive albedo reduction but due to their limited extent, explain just 12 and 15% of the observed variability respectively. Cryoconite, concentrated in large holes or fluvial deposits, is the darkest surface type but accounts for <1% of the area and has minimal impact. We propose that the ongoing emergence and dispersal of distributed impurities, amplified by enhanced ablation and biological activity, will drive future expansion of Greenland's dark zone.

Concepts: Water, Ice sheet, Greenland ice sheet, Glacier, Specific surface area, Type, Sublimation, Glaciology


There would be little adaptive value in a complex communication system like human language if there were no ways to detect and correct problems. A systematic comparison of conversation in a broad sample of the world’s languages reveals a universal system for the real-time resolution of frequent breakdowns in communication. In a sample of 12 languages of 8 language families of varied typological profiles we find a system of ‘other-initiated repair’, where the recipient of an unclear message can signal trouble and the sender can repair the original message. We find that this system is frequently used (on average about once per 1.4 minutes in any language), and that it has detailed common properties, contrary to assumptions of radical cultural variation. Unrelated languages share the same three functionally distinct types of repair initiator for signalling problems and use them in the same kinds of contexts. People prefer to choose the type that is the most specific possible, a principle that minimizes cost both for the sender being asked to fix the problem and for the dyad as a social unit. Disruption to the conversation is kept to a minimum, with the two-utterance repair sequence being on average no longer that the single utterance which is being fixed. The findings, controlled for historical relationships, situation types and other dependencies, reveal the fundamentally cooperative nature of human communication and offer support for the pragmatic universals hypothesis: while languages may vary in the organization of grammar and meaning, key systems of language use may be largely similar across cultural groups. They also provide a fresh perspective on controversies about the core properties of language, by revealing a common infrastructure for social interaction which may be the universal bedrock upon which linguistic diversity rests.

Concepts: Sociology, Linguistics, Language, Grammar, Semiotics, Type, Reason, Language family


This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to investigate whether maternal psychological stress and recent life events are associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. A literature search was conducted to identify studies reporting miscarriage in women with and without history of exposure to psychological stress (the only exposure considered). The search produced 1978 studies; 8 studies were suitable for analysis. A meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model with effect sizes weighted by the sampling variance. The risk of miscarriage was significantly higher in women with a history of exposure to psychological stress (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.19-1.70). These findings remained after controlling for study type (cohort and nested case-control study OR 1.33 95% CI 1.14-1.54), exposure types (work stress OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.10-1.47), types of controls included (live birth OR 2.82 95% CI: 1.64-4.86). We found no evidence that publication bias or study heterogeneity significantly influenced the results. Our finding provides the most robust evidence to date, that prior psychological stress is harmful to women in early pregnancy.

Concepts: Experimental design, Epidemiology, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Effect size, Meta-analysis, Study heterogeneity, Type


ABSTRACT Two studies examined the effect of applicants' smiling on hireability. In a pre-test study, participants were asked to rate the expected behavior for four types of applicants. Newspaper reporter applicants were expected to be more serious than applicants for other jobs. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to be an applicant or interviewer for a newspaper reporting job. Smiling was negatively related to hiring, and smiling mediated the relation between applicants' motivation to make a good impression and hiring. Hiring was maximized when applicants smiled less in the middle of the interview relative to the start and end. In Study 2, participants watched Study 1 clips and were randomly assigned to believe the applicants were applying to one of four jobs. Participants rated more suitability when applicants smiled less, especially for jobs associated with a serious demeanor. This research shows that job type is an important moderator of the impact of smiling on hiring.

Concepts: Interview, TheStart, Type, Smile, Type system, Reporter, Reporting


Background:Infantile tibia vara is an acquired form of tibial deformity associated with tibial varus and internal torsion. Several methods have been described for orthotics treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of orthotics treatment in infantile tibia vara.Study design:Controlled trial.Objective:The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different types of orthoses and correction methods on decreasing the curve in children with severe genu varum.Methods:Three different types of knee-ankle-foot orthoses were applied to 35 lower extremities of 22 pediatric participants who were 19-38 months of age. The same orthotic design principles were used to correct the femur, while different designs were applied to correct the tibia. The orthoses used on 20 participants were evaluated for differences among them and their effects on the treatment process. In addition, methods used in the treatment, problems encountered, production of different types of orthoses, convenience of application of the orthoses, and degree of patients satisfaction are discussed in this article.Results:The mean duration of treatment of the participants until completion of treatment was 25.3 ± 9.7 weeks with a minimum of 9 weeks and a maximum of 41 weeks. No statistically significant correlation was found between the duration of orthotic use in patients with a successful outcome and percentile height and percentile weight. When the duration of treatment using the different types of orthoses was analyzed, significant differences were found between Type 1 and Type 2, and Type 1 and Type 3 orthoses (p < 0.05), while no difference was observed between Type 2 and Type 3 orthoses (p > 0.05).Conclusion:We found that bracing is an effective form of treatment for infantile tibia vara up to 38 months of age. We conclude that full-time use of knee-ankle-foot orthoses exerting corrective forces from five points along the full length of the limb was effective.Clinical relevance:The localization of the distal tibial correction, the quality of the midtibial correction band, and the importance of the application of corrective forces from five points with rigid methods were found.

Concepts: Statistics, Effect, Statistical significance, Effectiveness, Varus deformity, Difference, Orthotics, Type


Accurate estimates of chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) from remotely sensed data for inland waters are challenging due to their optical complexity. In this study, a framework of Chl-a estimation is established for optically complex inland waters based on combination of water optical classification and two semi-empirical algorithms. Three spectrally distinct water types (Type I to Type III) are first identified using a clustering method performed on remote sensing reflectance (R(rs)) from datasets containing 231 samples from Lake Taihu, Lake Chaohu, Lake Dianchi, and Three Gorges Reservoir. The classification criteria for each optical water type are subsequently defined for MERIS images based on the spectral characteristics of the three water types. The criteria cluster every R(rs) spectrum into one of the three water types by comparing the values from band 7 (central band: 665nm), band 8 (central band: 681.25nm), and band 9 (central band: 708.75nm) of MERIS images. Based on the water classification, the type-specific three-band algorithms (TBA) and type-specific advanced three-band algorithm (ATBA) are developed for each water type using the same datasets. By pre-classifying, errors are decreased for the two algorithms, with the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) of TBA decreasing from 36.5% to 23% for the calibration datasets, and from 40% to 28% for ATBA. The accuracy of the two algorithms for validation data indicates that optical classification eliminates the need to adjust the optimal locations of the three bands or to re-parameterize to estimate Chl-a for other waters. The classification criteria and the type-specific ATBA are additionally validated by two MERIS images. The framework of first classifying optical water types based on reflectance characteristics and subsequently developing type-specific algorithms for different water types is a valid scheme for reducing errors in Chl-a estimation for optically complex inland waters.

Concepts: Estimator, Optics, Water, Spectrum, Type, Mean absolute percentage error, The Band


1) Provide a critical analysis of the contemporary published research pertaining to complementary, alternative, and other non-Complete Decongestive Therapies (CDT) for treatment of lymphedema (LE); and 2) Provide practical applications of that evidence to improve care of patients with or at risk for LE. TYPE: This study meets the defining criteria as a systematic search and review since it includes varied study types. All studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated for weight of evidence and value.

Concepts: Medicine, Critical thinking, Therapy, Study skills, Cultural studies, Lymphedema, Type, Type system


Purpose: Recently, vascular endostapling systems were developed to achieve better sealing at the proximal neck of the aneurysm and to prevent endograft migration. The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review about the current state and possible options of vascular endostapling systems. Results: No randomized controlled trials were published. The results showed that the use of an endostaple system considerably reduced the rates of endoleaks type 1a and endograft migration. Regarding the use of endostaples in different types of endografts, only a few results were available. Conclusion: The results are not conclusive. With endostaple systems, patients with difficult anatomic features and high risk can potentially be treated. These systems might reduce the high reintervention rates after endovascular aneurysm repair. Controlled randomized trials with larger number of patients are warranted with endostapling use in primary endograft implantation and for use in reintervention for late endoleaks or endograft migrations.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Human migration, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Type, Type system