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Concept: Transwoman


There is a general opinion that penile skin lined neovagina of transsexual women is not able to support the growth of lactobacilli. This study was undertaken to prove if lactobacilli strains could survive in neovagina and to characterise the most dominant Lactobacillus species. Sixty three male-to-female transsexual women without abnormal vaginal discharge, clinical signs of infection were recruited on an ongoing basis from among transsexual outpatients in an academic research institution and tertiary care centre. Neovaginal smears were taken for molecular Lactobacillus spp. profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Lactobacillus species were detected from 47/63 transsexual women (75%). The 279 Lactobacillus signals detected by PCR-DGGE technique belonged to 13 different species. Lactobacilli of the L. delbrueckii group (L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. johnsonii, L. iners, L. jensenii) were predominant. More than 90% of women harboured a combination of two or more neovaginal Lactobacillus species. In this study we report the frequent occurrence of lactobacilli from neovagina of transsexual women. Both, frequency and composition were similar to the normal lactic acid bacterial microflora in both women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women.

Concepts: Bacteria, Gender, Lactic acid, Woman, Lactobacillus, Transgender, Lactic acid bacteria, Transwoman


In trans women (male-to-female transsexual persons), cross-sex hormone therapy is administered to induce feminization. Breast development is an important part of feminization for most trans women.

Concepts: Hormone replacement therapy, Gender, Woman, Transgender, Women, Transwoman


Breast development is a key feature of feminization and therefore important to transwomen (male-to-female transgender persons). However, it is not exactly known when breast development starts after initiating cross-sex hormone therapy (CHT) and how much growth may be expected of CHT alone.

Concepts: Hormone replacement therapy, Gender, Growth hormone, Learning, Woman, Transgender, Transwoman


This study examined reactions to transgender people in public restrooms. Participants (n = 158) completed measures of essentialism and trait aggression and read scenarios where they imagined sharing a restroom with a transwoman or a transman. Participants indicated which restroom targets should use and rated potential negative reactions. Results indicate that targets were assigned to restrooms corresponding to birth sex rather than chosen identity. Women’s reactions to transgender women were more negative than men’s; men were more negative in reactions toward transmen. Essentialism predicted some (but not all) reactions for all participants. Among women, trait aggression predicted negative reactions, but only to transmen. Among men, aggression predicted negative reactions, but only toward transwomen. This suggests that despite views that transgender people belong in birth-sex restrooms, men and women’s trait aggression predicts negative reactions toward them in such instances.

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Woman, Gender identity, Transgender, Trans man, Transwoman


To critically analyze the available evidence regarding the incidence, etiopathogenesis, and management of CaP in this specific subset of patients. In addition, this manuscript aims to present a recent case report of a transgender woman with a unique presentation at the author’s institution.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Estrogen, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Woman, Transgender, Transwoman


This paper draws on ethnographic, qualitative and survey data with transwomen in Puerto Rico to examine the social and political-economic context of lay injection with hormone and silicone - common practices within this community. We describe specific practices of hormone and silicone injection, the actors that govern them, the market for the sale and distribution of syringes and the networks of lay specialists who provide services to a population that is neglected by and largely excluded from biomedical settings. Our data derive from ethnographic observations, sociodemographic questionnaires, surveys and semi-structured interviews conducted with a diverse group of transwomen in metropolitan San Juan, Puerto Rico. Our analysis focuses on four overlapping social domains or processes that shape the practices of lay silicone and hormone injection among transwomen: (1) the circulation of gender transitioning technologies within local and global markets; (2) the tension between the social exclusion of transwomen and their resilient sub-cultural responses; (3) the cultural meanings that shape transwomen’s attitudes about injection; and (4) the perceived consequences of injection. We conclude with a discussion of the kinds of intervention and policy changes that would respond to the factors that most endanger transwomen’s health.

Concepts: Evaluation methods, Sociology, Federal government of the United States, Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican people, Transitioning, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Transwoman


Research has shown that the gender transition of one partner in a relationship can have a significant impact on the non-transitioning partner. This paper explores the experiences of former and current cisgender partners of people making a gender transition. Six participants were recruited via snowball sampling and took part in semi-structured interviews, which were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes were identified, namely: (1) the shared and ongoing process of learning about a partner’s transgender identity; (2) changes in relationships; and (3) impact on self and identity. Findings highlight the constructed nature of gender and sexual identities, and the fluidity with which partners experienced these aspects of their lives. Future research could usefully explore the support needs of partners of transitioning people and the best ways to access and distribute this support.

Concepts: Sampling, Philosophy of science, Interpretative phenomenological analysis, Gender identity, Transgender, Transitioning, Transwoman, Real life experience


Men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women (transwomen) are disproportionately at risk of syphilis infection in Peru.

Concepts: Hormone replacement therapy, Gender, Gender role, Woman, Vagina, Transgender, Women, Transwoman


I am a trans woman, and I am a nurse. Sometimes it feels like these are unrelated, other times they feel inextricably linked.

Concepts: Gender, Woman, Transgender, Transwoman


Few studies of the transition to adulthood in Africa analyse young people’s own definitions of the events that confer adult status, and how adulthood is actually attained. This paper examines the experience of transitioning to womanhood in rural Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, drawing on interviews with 18 women aged 18-39. Three primary experiences characterised this transition: puberty and emerging body awareness, spending time with boys, and having a child. More important than the timing of these experiences, however, was whether women ‘behaved well’ and maintained respectability as they transitioned to adulthood. Behavioural standards reinforcing ideal femininity were focused on dress, manner and talk, and were particularly stringent for mothers. Findings emphasise the value of emic models of adulthood for understanding how youth experience this transition and provide an important counter-narrative to the literature focused primarily on the risk African youth face during this period of change in the life course.

Concepts: Africa, South Africa, Woman, African Union, Mpumalanga, Women, Transwoman