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Concept: Toronto


Paper currency by its very nature is frequently transferred from one person to another and represents an important medium for human contact with-and potential exchange of-microbes. In this pilot study, we swabbed circulating $1 bills obtained from a New York City bank in February (Winter) and June (Summer) 2013 and used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile the communities found on their surface. Using basic culture conditions, we also tested whether viable microbes could be recovered from bills.

Concepts: Money, New Jersey, New York, London, City of London, Toronto, United Kingdom, New York City


Residents of some low-income neighborhoods have limited access to fresh fruits and vegetables. In 2008, New York City issued new mobile fruit and vegetable cart licenses for neighborhoods with inadequate availability of fresh produce. Some of these carts were equipped with electronic benefit transfer (EBT) machines, allowing them to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. This article examines the association between type and quantities of fruits and vegetables purchased from mobile fruit and vegetable vendors and consumer characteristics, including payment method.

Concepts: Cucumber, Toronto, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Tomato, Fruit, New York City, Vegetable


To assess potential reductions in premature mortality that could have been achieved in 2008 to 2012 if the minimum wage had been $15 per hour in New York City.

Concepts: Global city, London, City of London, New Jersey, New York, Toronto, Minimum wage, New York City


As a consequence of the accelerated globalization process, today major cities all over the world are characterized by an increasing multiculturalism. The integration of immigrant communities may be affected by social polarization and spatial segregation. How are these dynamics evolving over time? To what extent the different policies launched to tackle these problems are working? These are critical questions traditionally addressed by studies based on surveys and census data. Such sources are safe to avoid spurious biases, but the data collection becomes an intensive and rather expensive work. Here, we conduct a comprehensive study on immigrant integration in 53 world cities by introducing an innovative approach: an analysis of the spatio-temporal communication patterns of immigrant and local communities based on language detection in Twitter and on novel metrics of spatial integration. We quantify the Power of Integration of cities -their capacity to spatially integrate diverse cultures- and characterize the relations between different cultures when acting as hosts or immigrants.

Concepts: Toronto, Cultural studies, Earth, Universe, Sociology, Europe, Globalization, Culture


Evidence suggests that migrant groups have an increased risk of psychotic disorders and that the level of risk varies by country of origin and host country. Canadian evidence is lacking on the incidence of psychotic disorders among migrants. We sought to examine the incidence of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders in first-generation immigrants and refugees in the province of Ontario, relative to the general population.

Concepts: Ontario, Toronto, Canada, Bipolar disorder, Immigration, Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective disorder, Psychosis


The public health consequences of extreme heat events are felt most intensely in metropolitan areas where population density is high and the presence of the urban heat island phenomenon exacerbates the potential for prolonged exposure. This research develops an approach to map potential heat stress on humans by combining temperature and relative humidity into an index of apparent temperature. We use ordinary kriging to generate hourly prediction maps describing apparent temperature across the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Meteorological data were obtained from 65 locations for 6 days in 2008 when extreme heat alerts were issued for the City of Toronto. Apparent temperature and exposure duration were integrated in a single metric, humidex degree hours (HDH), and mapped. The results show a significant difference in apparent temperature between built and natural locations from 3 PM to 7 AM; this discrepancy was greatest at 12 AM where built locations had a mean of 2.8 index values larger, t(71) = 5.379, p < 0.001. Spatial trends in exposure to heat stress (apparent temperature, ≥30°C) show the downtown core of the City of Toronto and much of Mississauga (west of Toronto) as likely to experience hazardous levels of prolonged heat and humidity (HDH ≥ 72) during a heat alert. We recommend that public health officials use apparent temperature and exposure duration to develop spatially explicit heat vulnerability assessment tools; HDH is one approach that unites these risk factors into a single metric.

Concepts: Highway 401, Heat wave, Mississauga, Toronto, Urban heat island, Greater Toronto Area, Humidity, Precipitation


Abstract Purpose: To assess stability and change in representations of disability and persons with disability in the Canadian news media between 1998 and 2008. Method: The study replicated research conducted in 1998 that assessed the representation of disability in the Canadian news media. Following the earlier study, three newspapers were selected (Globe and Mail, Toronto Star and Toronto Sun) and all articles from a three-month period in 1998 and 2008 were assessed for disability content. In total, 362 articles were found in the two time periods. These were coded for structure and content using a schema developed in the earlier research. Results: Between 1998 and 2008, there was a significant increase in the proportion of stories using “person first” language, and a significant increase in the proportion of “progressively” themed articles (e.g. dealing with barriers to participation, or disability awareness and inclusion). At the same time, there were significant differences between newspapers, with the Toronto Sun (a tabloid) maintaining a strong focus on “traditional” themes (e.g. special education, charitable provision). Conclusions: The differences in news media representations between 1998 and 2008 suggest a positive change in the way people with disabilities are represented, with greater attention to the complexity of their identity and their multiple social roles. Implications for Rehabilitation The participation of persons with disabilities in society continues to be limited by negative attitudes. Media reporting has a significant influence on public attitudes toward disability. In a content analysis of three Canadian newspapers, this study found several significant changes in the language and content of disability-related articles. Together, these changes provide some evidence of more favorable media representations of disability. Further research in rehabilitation is needed to understand how such changes may both reflect and facilitate ongoing efforts to enhance people with disabilties' participation in social life.

Concepts: Toronto Sun, The Globe and Mail, Social model of disability, Inclusion, The Sun, National Post, Toronto, Disability


Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often considered an important distal factor in HIV sexual risk behaviors; however, there are limited and mixed findings regarding this relationship among women experiencing substance use problems. In addition, research with this population of women has yet to examine differences in observed CSA-HIV sexual risk behaviors relationships by CSA type and characteristics.

Concepts: Toronto, Type, Relationship, New York, City of London, Human sexual behavior, Child abuse, New York City


To determine the feasibility of a Community-Based Participatory Tobacco Dependence Strategy (PROMPT) in the inner city population of Ottawa (Canada).

Concepts: Praxis intervention, Toronto, Suburb, Plan, Action research, Participatory action research, Research


Our objective is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of investments in bike lanes using New York City’s (NYC) fiscal year 2015 investment as a case study. We also provide a generalizable model, so that localities can estimate their return on bike lane investments.

Concepts: City of London, Chicago, Investment, Global city, New Jersey, Toronto, New York, New York City