Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Third gender


Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation.

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Gender identity, Transgender, Third gender, Homosexuality, Gender studies, Gender identity disorder


On July 13, 2015, U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter announced that the military anticipates lifting its ban on service by transgender persons, those whose gender identity does not match the sex that they were assigned at birth. Although an estimated 12,800 transgender personnel currently serve in the U.S. armed forces (see table for explanations of estimates), they must conceal their gender identity because military policy bans them from serving and prohibits military doctors from providing transition-related care. Although some transgender people do not change their bodies to match their gender identities, government agencies, courts, and scientists agree that for many, transition-related . . .

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Gender identity, Transgender, Third gender, Armed forces, Homosexuality, United States Department of Defense


Transgender individuals have a gender identity that differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. The population size of transgender individuals in the United States is not well-known, in part because official records, including the US Census, do not include data on gender identity. Population surveys today more often collect transgender-inclusive gender-identity data, and secular trends in culture and the media have created a somewhat more favorable environment for transgender people.

Concepts: United States, Gender, Gender role, Gender identity, Sexual orientation, Transgender, Third gender, Homosexuality


Transgender children who have socially transitioned, that is, who identify as the gender “opposite” their natal sex and are supported to live openly as that gender, are increasingly visible in society, yet we know nothing about their mental health. Previous work with children with gender identity disorder (GID; now termed gender dysphoria) has found remarkably high rates of anxiety and depression in these children. Here we examine, for the first time, mental health in a sample of socially transitioned transgender children.

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Gender identity, Sexual orientation, Transgender, Third gender, Homosexuality, Gender identity disorder


Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment at gender identity services in Western countries. An increasingly accepted treatment model that includes puberty suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs starting during the early stages of puberty, cross-sex hormonal treatment starting at ~16 years of age and possibly surgical treatments in legal adulthood, is often indicated for adolescents with childhood gender dysphoria (GD) that intensifies during puberty. However, virtually nothing is known regarding adolescent-onset GD, its progression and factors that influence the completion of the developmental tasks of adolescence among young people with GD and/or transgender identity. Consolidation of identity development is a central developmental goal of adolescence, but we still do not know enough about how gender identity and gender variance actually evolve. Treatment-seeking adolescents with GD present with considerable psychiatric comorbidity. There is little research on how GD and/or transgender identity are associated with completion of developmental tasks of adolescence.

Concepts: Gender, Adolescence, Gender identity, Puberty, Transgender, Third gender, Homosexuality, Gender identity disorder


Persons with gender identity disorder (GID) often suffer from psychiatric co-morbidity, and it is an important prognostic factor for long-term psychosocial adjustment in GID. However, previous research has not addressed the risk factors of psychiatric co-morbidity. In this study, we tried to clarify the risk factors among individuals with GID in Japan. A total of 326 consecutive GID persons were evaluated independently by two senior psychiatrists at the GID clinic using personal clinical interviews and results of examinations. The prevalence of current psychiatric co-morbidity was 17.8% of the total sample. School refusal was significantly associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Sexual attraction to neither males nor females among GID persons and sexual attraction to females among male-to-female (MtF) GID persons were also significantly related to psychiatric co-morbidity. This is the first report to demonstrate a close relationship between patterns of sexual orientation and psychiatric co-morbidity among GID persons. We should pay more attention to psychiatric co-morbidity, especially among GID persons with non-homosexual sexual orientations.

Concepts: Gender, Gender identity, Sexual orientation, Transgender, Third gender, Homosexuality, Bisexuality, Gender identity disorder


Despite recognizing that gender identity is a complex compromise formation, psychotherapists struggle to tolerate gender variance. We still tend to favor binary gender identities and clear developmental lines, rather than embracing a stance of subversive curiosity about the variability and fluidity of gender in our patients. When gender identity is fluid or ambiguous, countertransferential affective disturbances can arise that meld states of abjection and excitement, challenging theoretical constructs and threatening therapeutic neutrality. Case material from the treatment of a female-to-male trans person is presented from the perspective of the transference-countertransference matrix.

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Gender identity, Transgender, Third gender, Homosexuality, Gender studies, Genderqueer


Research focused on sexual orientation and gender identity among youth is scarce in school psychology journals. Graybill and Proctor (2016; this issue) found that across a sample of eight school support personnel journals only .3 to 3.0% of the articles since 2000 included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-related research. It appears that special issues are a mechanism for publishing LGBT-related scholarship. This commentary includes a call for more research in school psychology and other related disciplines that intentionally addresses experiences of LGBT youth and their families. Two articles in this special section are summarized and critiqued with clear directions for future scholarship. Researchers and practitioners are ethically responsible for engaging in social justice oriented research and that includes assessing gender identity and sexual orientation in their studies and prevention program evaluations.

Concepts: LGBT, Gender, Gender identity, Sexual orientation, Transgender, Third gender, Homosexuality, Gay


Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans) and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require limited questions and a small number of categories for analysis. Limited evaluation has been undertaken of trans-inclusive population survey measures for sex/gender, including those currently in use. Using an internet survey and follow-up of 311 participants, and cognitive interviews from a maximum-diversity sub-sample (n = 79), we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of two existing measures: a two-step question developed in the United States and a multidimensional measure developed in Canada. We found very low levels of item missingness, and no indicators of confusion on the part of cisgender (non-trans) participants for both measures. However, a majority of interview participants indicated problems with each question item set. Agreement between the two measures in assessment of gender identity was very high (K = 0.9081), but gender identity was a poor proxy for other dimensions of sex or gender among trans participants. Issues to inform measure development or adaptation that emerged from analysis included dimensions of sex/gender measured, whether non-binary identities were trans, Indigenous and cultural identities, proxy reporting, temporality concerns, and the inability of a single item to provide a valid measure of sex/gender. Based on this evaluation, we recommend that population surveys meant for multi-purpose analysis consider a new Multidimensional Sex/Gender Measure for testing that includes three simple items (one asked only of a small sub-group) to assess gender identity and lived gender, with optional additions. We provide considerations for adaptation of this measure to different contexts.

Concepts: United States, Gender, Gender role, Gender identity, Transgender, Third gender, Gender studies, Cisgender


Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Gender, Gender role, Gender identity, Transgender, Third gender, Gender identity disorder