SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: TheStart

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We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.

Concepts: Statistics, Test method, TheStart, Walking, Treadmill, Financial services

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ABSTRACT Two studies examined the effect of applicants' smiling on hireability. In a pre-test study, participants were asked to rate the expected behavior for four types of applicants. Newspaper reporter applicants were expected to be more serious than applicants for other jobs. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to be an applicant or interviewer for a newspaper reporting job. Smiling was negatively related to hiring, and smiling mediated the relation between applicants' motivation to make a good impression and hiring. Hiring was maximized when applicants smiled less in the middle of the interview relative to the start and end. In Study 2, participants watched Study 1 clips and were randomly assigned to believe the applicants were applying to one of four jobs. Participants rated more suitability when applicants smiled less, especially for jobs associated with a serious demeanor. This research shows that job type is an important moderator of the impact of smiling on hiring.

Concepts: Interview, TheStart, Type, Smile, Type system, Reporter, Reporting

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Benefit from chemotherapy for well-differentiated/de-differentiated (WD/DD) liposarcomas has been reported to be minimal, however traditional response criteria may not adequately capture positive treatment effect. In this study, we evaluate benefit from first-line chemotherapy and characterize imaging response characteristics in patients with retroperitoneal (RP) WD/DD liposarcoma treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Response was assessed using RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and an exploratory analysis of vascular response was characterized. Among 82 patients evaluable for response to first-line therapy, 31 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for localized/locally advanced disease; 51 received chemotherapy for unresectable recurrent/metastatic disease. Median overall survival from the start of chemotherapy was 29 months (95% CI 24-40 months). Response rates by RECIST: partial response (PR) 21% (17/82), stable disease (SD) 40%, and progression (PD) 39%. All RECIST responses were in patients receiving combination chemotherapy. A qualitative vascular response was seen in 24 patients (31%). Combination chemotherapy yields a response rate of 24% and a clinical benefit rate (CR/PR/SD > 6 months) of 44%, higher than previously reported in DD liposarcoma. A higher percentage of patients experience a vascular response with chemotherapy that is not adequately captured by RECIST in these large heterogeneous tumors.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Response rate, Benign tumor, Tumor, Neoplasm, TheStart, Received Pronunciation

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Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of research informed consent is a high priority. Some express concern about longer, more complex, written consent forms creating barriers to participant understanding. A recent meta-analysis concluded that randomized comparisons were needed.

Concepts: Comparison, Informed consent, Randomized controlled trial, Comparisons, TheStart

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Changes in finger tissue blood volume (TBV) measured by light transmission and in laser Doppler flow (LDF) were obtained during long breathing (of 12 s period) and associated with the respiratory phases, inspiration and expiration. For fifteen out of sixteen subjects TBV and LDF started to decrease 0-2 s after the start of expiration and increased during inspiration but the start of increase occurred before the start of inspiration, showing that the respiratory-induced changes in TBV and LDF are mainly associated with the expiration. Decrease of TBV and LDF after expiration was also found during the inspiratory gasps (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

Concepts: Blood, Quantum mechanics, Wave, TheStart, Knitting, Doppler radar, Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung

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Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a lysosomal storage disorder that is progressive and involves multiple organs and tissues. While enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase has been shown to improve many somatic features of the disease, some such as dysostosis multiplex and cardiac valve disease appear irreversible once established, and little is known about the preventative effects of ERT in pre-symptomatic patients. We report on two siblings with severe MPS II caused by an inversion mutation with recombination breakpoints located within the IDS gene and its adjacent pseudogene, IDS-2. The siblings initiated treatment with idursulfase at 3.0years (older brother) and 4months (younger brother) of age, and we compared their outcomes following 2years of treatment. At the start of treatment, the older brother showed typical features of MPS II, including intellectual disability. After 34months of ERT, his somatic disease was stable or improved, but he continued to decline cognitively. By comparison, after 32months of ERT his younger brother remained free from most of the somatic features that had already appeared in his brother at the same age, manifesting only exudative otitis media. Skeletal X-rays revealed characteristic signs of dysostosis multiplex in the older brother at the initiation of treatment that were unchanged two years later, whereas the younger brother showed only slight findings of dysostosis multiplex throughout the treatment period. The younger brother’s developmental quotient trended downward over time to just below the normal range. These findings suggest that pre-symptomatic initiation of ERT may prevent or attenuate progression of the somatic features of MPS II. Follow-up in a larger number of patients is required to confirm the additive long-term benefits of ERT in pre-symptomatic patients.

Concepts: DNA, Lysosomal storage disease, Therapy, Initiation, Fabry disease, TheStart, Mucopolysaccharidosis, Hunter syndrome

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Purpose: To improve the slice profile of the half radiofrequency (RF) pulse excitation and image quality of ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging by compensating for an eddy current effect.Methods: The dedicated prescan has been developed to measure the phase accumulation due to eddy currents induced by the slice-selective gradient. The prescan measures two one-dimensional excitation k-space profiles, which can be acquired with a readout gradient in the slice-selection direction by changing the polarity of the slice-selective gradient. The time shifts due to the phase accumulation in the excitation k-space were calculated. The time shift compensated for the start time of the slice-selective gradient. The total prescan time was 6-15 s. The slice profile and the UTE image with the half RF pulse excitation were acquired to evaluate the slice selectivity and the image quality.Results: Improved slice selectivity was obtained. The simple method proposed in this paper can eliminate eddy current effect. Good UTE images were obtained.Conclusions: The slice profile of the half RF pulse excitation and the image quality of UTE images have been improved by using a dedicated prescan. This method has a possibility that can improve the image quality of a clinical UTE imaging.

Concepts: Magnetic field, Improve, David Gilmour, IMAGE, TheStart, Eddy current, Echo

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Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hours. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hours after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/h) decreased significantly after km 618 (p<0.05). Participants ingested on average 392 ± 85 ml/h of fluid, but fluid intake decreased after km 618 (p<0.05). Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise.

Concepts: Eating, Muscle, Trigraph, Carbohydrate, Exercise physiology, TheStart, Drinking, Ad libitum

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Initial 14-m start performance has substantial influence on 500 m race outcome at the international level yet the relationship has not been systematically quantified. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between rank position entering first corner (RPEFC) and race outcome and to understand how this relationship changes with competition round and absolute race intensity. Data were compiled from 2011-2014 World Cup seasons and 2010 and 2014 Olympic Winter Games. Association between RPEFC and race outcome was determined through Kendall’s tau rank correlations. A visual comparison was made of how the relationship changes with relative competition level (race tau correlations were sorted by competition round), and with race intensity (race tau correlations were sorted by within-event winning time). A very large relationship between RPEFC and race outcome was observed (correlations for; cohort: T=0.60, men: T=0.53 and women: T=0.67). When examined by competition round (quarter- to A-finals), no substantial change in relationship was observed (men: T=0.57 to 0.46; and women: T=0.73 to 0.53). However, when the start performance relationship was considered by within-event winning time, the relationship strength increased with decreasing time (men: T=0.61 to T=0.46; women: T=0.76 to T=0.57, fastest to 7th and 8th fastest combined respectively). These results establish and quantify RPEFC as an important aspect of elite short track 500 m race outcome. RPEFC as an indicator of race outcome becomes increasingly important with absolute race intensity suggesting that RPEFC capability is a discriminating factor for competitors of similar top speed and speed endurance capabilities.

Concepts: Competition, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, Olympic Games, TheStart, Winter Olympic Games, Olympic sports, Speed skating, Short track speed skating

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Some strains of species belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are used in order to maintain health. Although these organisms have a long record of safe use, it is important to assess their safety and tolerance in potentially vulnerable populations, such as infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033, Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052) in healthy infants aged 3 to 12 months. A multi-centre randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study with 221 healthy full-term infants was conducted. Infants received either a placebo or one of the 3 probiotic strains (3×10(9) cfu) daily during an 8 week intervention period. Growth (weight, height and head circumference), adverse events (AEs)/serious adverse events (SAEs), concentrations of D-lactic acid in urine samples, characteristics of the stools and use of medication were collected for safety evaluation. All 4 groups were homogeneous with respect to age, gender, feeding type, ethnicity, height, weight and head circumference at the start of the study. The results showed that changes in growth (weight, height and head circumference) were equivalent in all 4 groups. No SAEs were reported. Total number of AEs recorded was equivalent in all groups. Thus, the use of B. infantis R0033, L. helveticus R0052 and B. bifidum R0071 in infancy is safe, and well tolerated.

Concepts: Infant, Gut flora, Species, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, TheStart, Infant massage, Lactobacillus helveticus