Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Urge


Recently, Marczinski and colleagues (2013) showed that energy drinks combined with alcohol augment a person’s desire to drink more alcohol relative to drinking alcohol alone. The current study replicates the findings of Marczinski and colleagues (2013) using a robust measure of alcohol craving.

Concepts: The Current, The Urge, Surface tension, Wine, Kefir, Drinking, Drink, Alcoholic beverage


Expert readers have been repeatedly reported to misperceive the centre of visual stimuli, shifting systematically to the left the bisection of any lines (pseudoneglect) while showing a cross-over effect while bisecting different types of orthographic strings (Arduino et al., 2010, Neuropsychologia, 48, 2140). This difference has been attributed to asymmetrical allocation of attention that visuo-verbal material receives when lexical access occurs (e.g., Fischer, 2004, Cognitive Brain Research, 4, 163). The aim of this study was to further examine which visual features guide recognition of potentially orthographic materials. To disentangle the role of orthography, heterogeneity, and visuo-perceptual discreteness, we presented Italian unimpaired adults with four experiments exploiting the bisection paradigm. The results showed that a cross-over effect emerges in most discrete strings, especially when their internal structure, that is being composed of heterogeneous elements, is suggestive of orthographically relevant material. Interestingly, the cross-over effect systematically characterized the processing of letter strings (Experiment 2) and words (Experiments 3 and 4), whether visually discrete or not. Overall, this pattern of results suggests that neither discreteness nor heterogeneity per se are responsible for activating visual scanning mechanisms implied in text exploration, although both contribute to increasing the chance of a visual stimulus undergoing a perceptual analysis dedicated to pre-lexical processing.

Concepts: Heterogeneity, Lexeme, Experiment, The Urge, Word, Visual perception, Structure, Orthography


Perfect absorbers are indispensable components for energy harvesting applications. While many absorbers have been proposed, they encounter inevitable drawbacks including bulkiness or instability over time. The urge for CMOS compatible absorber that can be integrated for on chip applications requires further investigation. We theoretically demonstrate Silicon (Si) based mid IR super absorber with absorption (A) reaching 0.948. Our structure is composed of multilayered N-doped Si/ Si hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) integrated with sub-hole Si grating. Our proposed structure has tunable absorption peak that can be tuned from 4.5 µm to 11 µm through changing the grating parameters. We also propose two grating designs integrated with N-doped Si/ Si HMM that can achieve wide band absorption. The first grating design is based on Si grating incorporating different holes' height with (A) varying between 0.83 and 0.97 for wavelength from 5 µm to 7 µm. The second grating design is based on Si grating with variable holes' diameter; the latter shows broad band absorption with the maximum (A) reaching 0.97. We also show that our structure is omnidirectional. We propose an all Si based absorber which demonstrates a good candidate for thermal harvesting application.

Concepts: Broadband, Transistor, Demonstration, The Urge, Silicon, Proposal, Length, Integrated circuit


Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles with a significant role in most processes associated with cancer. On one hand, exosomes role in the different hallmarks of cancer has been widely described, highlighting the urge to understand the potential to target communication mediated by exosomes as a novel therapeutic approach in cancer. On the other hand, exosomes stability in circulation and tumor-targeting capacity shows their applicability in the delivery of anti-cancer molecules. This review will discuss the dual applicability of exosomes in cancer focusing on their usage for therapy improvement, or their targeting to block their supportive role in tumor progression and response to therapy. We highlight the current developments and the strategies used to enhance the potential of exosomes to become clinical partners in the treatment of cancer.

Concepts: The Current, The Delivery, Therapy, The Urge, Medicine


A 52-year-old man complains of minor urgency and frequency during the day and nocturia × 3-5. His DRE reveals a 30-g benign prostate. He is started on tamsulosin, and his daytime symptoms resolve entirely; however, he still has nocturia × 2-4. He is counseled on lifestyle modifications and to decrease fluid consumption including caffeine but has no improvement in nocturia. Cystoscopy is normal with no evident visual obstruction. A urinalysis is normal. The PVR is 40 ml. He has a normal-sized neck and does not snore. He has no trouble sleeping and awakens because of the urge to void. This is very bothersome.

Concepts: 2000 albums, Prostate cancer, The Urge, Urology, Benign prostatic hyperplasia


Natural carcinogenic fibers are asbestos and asbestiform fibers present as a natural component of soils or rocks. These fibers are released into the environment resulting in exposure of the general population. Environmental contamination by fibers are those cases occurred in: rural regions of Turkey, in Mediterranean countries and in other sites of the world, including northern Europe, USA and China. Fluoro-edenite(FE) is a natural mineral species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibers are similar in size and morphology to some amphibolic asbestos fibers, whose inhalation can cause chronic inflammation and cancer. The aim of the current study is to assess the presence and features of pleural plaques (PPs) in Biancavilla’s general population exposed to FE through a retrospective cross-sectional study. All High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest scans carried out between June 2009 and June 2015 in Biancavilla municipality hospital site (exposed subjects) were reviewed. The exposed groups were 1:1 subjects, matched according to age and sex distributions, with unexposed subjects (n.1.240) randomly selected among HRCT chest scans carried out in a Hospital 30km away from Biancavilla. Subjects from Biancavilla with PPs were significantly more numerous than the control group ones (218 vs 38). Average age of either group was >60 years; the age of exposed subjects was significantly (p=0.0312) lesser than the unexposed group. In exposed subjects, in most PPs thickness ranged between 2 and 4.9cm(38%, n=83); while in unexposed ones PPs thickness was less than 2cm (55%, n=21). As to the size of PPs in exposed subjects, in most cases it ranged between 1cm and 24% of chest wall (53%, n=116); while in unexposed ones the size of PPs was lesser than 1cm (23%, n=58). Among exposed subjects, 36 cases (17%) PPs were detected with calcification, whereas in unexposed ones only three (8%) presented calcification. 137 lung parenchymal abnormalities were observed in exposed group; whereas, 12 lung parenchymal involvement were registered in unexposed subjects. The RR for PPs is 6,74 CI 95% (4,47-9,58) p<0,0001 in the exposed population. These findings, suggested the urge to extend the screening on the possible involvement of the respiratory tract to all Biancavilla's population, particularly in those aged more than 30. Besides, it seems essential to start indoor monitoring Biancavilla's municipality.

Concepts: Cross-sectional study, The Urge, The Age, Pleural cavity, Fibers, Respiratory system, Cancer, Asbestos


The aim of the present study was to use an eye-tracking device to investigate attention bias and its mechanism toward high-calorie virtual food in individuals with bulimic tendencies (BT). A total of 76 participants were divided into two groups: a BT group (n = 38) and a control group (n = 38). The eye movements of all participants were continuously measured while the participants were confronted with pairs of high-calorie, low-calorie, and nonfood virtual stimuli (pictures). It was found that the BT group detected high-calorie food more quickly than they did the low-calorie food and nonfood stimuli, but they also avoided the high-calorie food. These results indicate that individuals with BT automatically allocate their attention toward high-calorie food and, subsequently, try to avoid it. Based on these results, we suggest that this approach-avoidance pattern for high-calorie virtual food could be a factor in the development and maintenance of bulimia symptoms by encouraging individuals with BT to be in conflict with the urge to overeat.

Concepts: Division, Eye, Attention, Bulimia nervosa, The Urge, BT Group, Present, Time


No abstract is needed because this is an editorial from Chief Editor.

Concepts: Immortal Records, The Urge, Editing


A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin.

Concepts: The Urge, Biology, Scientific method, Metabolism, Physiology, Obesity, Hormone


Background: Varenicline has been shown to reduce cigarette craving during a quit attempt. Objectives: Use BOLD fMRI to explore differences in smoking cue reactivity at baseline and after five weeks of varenicline smoking cessation treatment. Methods: Treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent adult smokers underwent BOLD fMRI scans with block presentation of visual smoking, neutral, and rest cues under two conditions: craving or resisting the urge to smoke at baseline and following 5 weeks of standard varenicline therapy. Data were analyzed using FMRI Expert Analysis Tool, version 5.98 of Functional Magnetic Imaging of the Brain Software Library focused on the smoking vs. neutral cue contrast at the individual and group level, Z>2.3 with cluster threshold p=0.05. Results: Twenty-one participants were scanned at baseline and 16 completed the study; 10 were abstinent at the 2(nd) session, confirmed with urinary cotinine. In the Crave Condition no significant differences were found between the abstinent and non-abstinent groups at either time point. During the baseline Resist Condition, the abstinent group compared to the non-abstinent group demonstrated activation in a distributed network involved in alertness, learning and memory. Additionally, within the abstinent group, increased activation of the superior frontal gyrus was found at baseline compared to week 5. Conclusion: Successful smoking cessation with varenicline is associated with increased activation, prior to a quit attempt, in brain areas related to attentiveness and memory while resisting the urge to smoke Scientific Significance: Varenicline may exert effects by both reducing craving and enhancing resistance to smoking urges during cue-elicited craving.

Concepts: RESIST, Brain, The Urge, Addiction, Smoking, Nicotine, Smoking cessation