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Concept: The Practice

165

Interest in the connection between involvement in digital communities and well-being has increased as these communities become more commonplace. Specific models of interaction that affect well-being have emerged; here, we examine one of those models, termed ‘digital daily practice’. Digital daily practices involve a commitment to doing one thing - exercise, photography and writing - every day and sharing it online. Participants in these practices agree that they provide an unexpected benefit of improving well-being. This article makes an in-depth examination of one digital daily practice, photo-a-day, using a practice theory framework to understand the affordances it offers for well-being. We engage with the literature on well-being and self-care, critiquing its presentation of well-being as an individual trait. We present data from an ethnographic study including interviews and observations to highlight how photo-a-day as a practice functions as self-care and how communities are formed around it. Photo-a-day is not a simple and uncomplicated practice; rather it is the complex affordances and variance within the practice that relate it to well-being. We conclude that this practice has multi-faceted benefits for improving well-being.

Concepts: Examination, Best practice, The Practice, Simple living, Ethnography, William Shatner

35

The millions of peripheral intravenous catheters used each year are recommended for 72-96 h replacement in adults. This routine replacement increases health-care costs and staff workload and requires patients to undergo repeated invasive procedures. The effectiveness of the practice is not well established. Our hypothesis was that clinically indicated catheter replacement is of equal benefit to routine replacement.

Concepts: Intravenous therapy, Catheter, Peripheral venous catheter, The Practice

32

The growing recognition of precision medicine by clinicians, health systems, and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as by patients and policymakers,(1) reflects the emergence of a field that is accelerating rapidly and will leave a major imprint on the practice of medicine. In this article, we summarize the forces accelerating precision medicine, the challenges to its implementation, and the implications for clinical practice. What Is Precision Medicine? The terms precision, personalized, and individualized medicine are often used interchangeably. Many physicians contend that they have always practiced individualized and personalized medicine. We agree and, for this reason, prefer the term precision . . .

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Clinical trial, Hospital, Avicenna, Physician, Health care system, The Practice

28

The recreational and competitive practice of acrobatic sports, that is, trampoline, tumbling and acrobatic gymnastics (ACRO), is growing rapidly around the world. Many studies described the injuries affecting young artistic gymnasts, but only few concerned acrobatic sports.

Concepts: World, The Practice, Gymnastics, Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique, Cheerleading, Floor, Acrobatics, Acrobatic gymnastics

27

Abstract Nowadays, Tai chi chuan (TCC) is practiced by millions worldwide with a range of skill levels. However, the effect of skill level on physiological response to TCC performance has yet to be clarified. In this study, physiological parameters during practicing simplified 24-form TCC were investigated and compared in 10 young high-level (HL) male TCC athletes and 10 ordinary-level (OL) male TCC practitioners with similar age and body size. Significantly higher energy expenditure, heart rate, oxygen uptake and tidal volume were found in HL group than OL group during TCC performance. The respiratory frequency and exhalation time were similar between the two groups during practicing TC; however, significantly less inhalation time was found in HL group (1.02±0.2 s) than OL group (1.12±0.28 s). Our results suggested that skill level may have considerable impact on metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to TCC performance. TCC practitioners with different skill levels may practice TCC in different ways, which was supposed to lead to distinguishable response between the two groups.

Concepts: Time, Physiology, Respiratory physiology, Qi, The Practice, Tai chi chuan

27

This experimental study aimed to determine the effect of practicing a position matching task with (mirror) visual feedback of the less-impaired arm on the matching accuracy of the impaired arm in children and adolescents with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Practice consisted of 40 trials of bimanual target matching, where one group received regular visual feedback and a second group received mirror visual feedback of the less-impaired arm. On three occasions (pre, post, and after a 1-week-retention) position sense (matching accuracy measured as the endpoint error in cm) of the impaired arm was tested with a unimanual and bimanual matching task, performed without any visual information of either hand. Matching accuracy of the impaired arm was better in the post-test than in the pre-test, but this improvement was similar for both practice groups. In the retention-test, accuracy had returned to pre-test-level, which might be ascribed to the short duration of the practice period. These outcomes suggest that practicing a matching task with visual feedback of the less-impaired arm might help to improve the matching accuracy of the impaired arm in individuals with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Symptoms, Sensory system, Cerebral palsy, Disability, Audio feedback, The Practice

26

This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings (such as rural, western India), is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of the heuristic’s exploitation conditions, a set of public education and enabled choice, enhanced protections, and empowerment reforms to transnational gestational surrogacy practice is proposed that, if incorporated into a national regulatory framework and actualized within a low income country, could possibly render such practice nonexploitative.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Poverty, Obstetrics, Exploitation, The Practice, Surrogacy, Working poor, Capitalism

26

Cardiopulmonary bypass has revolutionized the practice of cardiac surgery and allows safe conduct of increasingly complex cardiac surgery. A brief review of the bypass circuit is undertaken in this review. A more thorough review of the anesthetic management is accomplished including choice of anesthetic medications and their effects. The inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass is reviewed along with interventions that may help ameliorate the inflammation.

Concepts: Inflammation, Blood vessel, Endothelium, Anti-inflammatory, Review, Cardiopulmonary bypass, The Practice

24

CrossFit is recognized as one of the fastest growing high-intensity functional training modes in the world. However, scientific data regarding the practice of CrossFit is sparse. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the findings of scientific literature related to CrossFit via systematic review and meta-analysis.

Concepts: The Practice

14

In this integrative review, we aimed to: first, identify and summarize published studies relating to ward nurses' recognition of and response to patient deterioration; second, to critically evaluate studies that described or appraised the practice of ward nurses in recognizing and responding to patient deterioration; and third, identify gaps in the literature for further research.

Concepts: The Practice, David E. Kelley