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Concept: The Instructor


The “flipped classroom” is a learning model in which content attainment is shifted forward to outside of class, then followed by instructor-facilitated concept application activities in class. Current studies on the flipped model are limited. Our goal was to provide quantitative and controlled data about the effectiveness of this model. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared an active nonflipped classroom with an active flipped classroom, both using the 5-E learning cycle, in an effort to vary only the role of the instructor and control for as many of the other potentially influential variables as possible. Results showed that both low-level and deep conceptual learning were equivalent between the conditions. Attitudinal data revealed equal student satisfaction with the course. Interestingly, both treatments ranked their contact time with the instructor as more influential to their learning than what they did at home. We conclude that the flipped classroom does not result in higher learning gains or better attitudes compared with the nonflipped classroom when both utilize an active-learning, constructivist approach and propose that learning gains in either condition are most likely a result of the active-learning style of instruction rather than the order in which the instructor participated in the learning process.

Concepts: Better, Psychology, Learning, Knowledge, Concept, Classroom, Higher Learning, The Instructor


Helping trainees develop appropriate clinical reasoning abilities is a challenging goal in an environment where clinical situations are marked by high levels of complexity and unpredictability. The benefit of simulation-based education to assess clinical reasoning skills has rarely been reported. More specifically, it is unclear if clinical reasoning is better acquired if the instructor’s input occurs entirely after or is integrated during the scenario. Based on educational principles of the dual-process theory of clinical reasoning, a new simulation approach called simulation with iterative discussions (SID) is introduced. The instructor interrupts the flow of the scenario at three key moments of the reasoning process (data gathering, integration, and confirmation). After each stop, the scenario is continued where it was interrupted. Finally, a brief general debriefing ends the session. System-1 process of clinical reasoning is assessed by verbalization during management of the case, and System-2 during the iterative discussions without providing feedback.

Concepts: Psychology, Education, Assessment, Educational psychology, Complexity, Randomness, Interrupt, The Instructor


Teaching a new concept through gestures-hand movements that accompany speech-facilitates learning above-and-beyond instruction through speech alone (e.g., Singer & Goldin-Meadow, ). However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still under investigation. Here, we use eye tracking to explore one often proposed mechanism-gesture’s ability to direct visual attention. Behaviorally, we replicate previous findings: Children perform significantly better on a posttest after learning through Speech+Gesture instruction than through Speech Alone instruction. Using eye tracking measures, we show that children who watch a math lesson with gesture do allocate their visual attention differently from children who watch a math lesson without gesture-they look more to the problem being explained, less to the instructor, and are more likely to synchronize their visual attention with information presented in the instructor’s speech (i.e., follow along with speech) than children who watch the no-gesture lesson. The striking finding is that, even though these looking patterns positively predict learning outcomes, the patterns do not mediate the effects of training condition (Speech Alone vs. Speech+Gesture) on posttest success. We find instead a complex relation between gesture and visual attention in which gesture moderates the impact of visual looking patterns on learning-following along with speech predicts learning for children in the Speech+Gesture condition, but not for children in the Speech Alone condition. Gesture’s beneficial effects on learning thus come not merely from its ability to guide visual attention, but also from its ability to synchronize with speech and affect what learners glean from that speech.

Concepts: Psychology, Mathematics, Cognitive science, Eye, Visual perception, Visual system, Learning, The Instructor


The end-of-life lecture has historically led to an emotionally difficult day for first-semester nursing students. The instructor implemented a few small changes to update the end-of-life lecture content, and as a result, positive outcomes were found. The purpose of this project was to provide a positive end-of-life experience for first-semester nursing students. A variety of small changes were implemented to achieve this goal.

Concepts: Academic degree, Project management, Bachelor's degree, Associate's degree, The Instructor, Associate of Arts


The aim of this study was to investigate dental students' long-term retention of clinical communication skills learned in a second-year standardized patient simulation at one U.S. dental school. Retention was measured by students' performance with an actual patient during their fourth year. The high-fidelity simulation exercise focused on clinical communication skills took place during the spring term of the students' second year. The effect of the simulation was measured by comparing the fourth-year clinical performance of two groups: those who had participated in the simulation (intervention group; Class of 2016) and those who had not (no intervention/control group; Class of 2015). In the no intervention group, all 47 students participated; in the intervention group, 58 of 59 students participated. Both instructor assessments and students' self-assessments were used to evaluate the effectiveness of key patient interaction principles as well as comprehensive presentation of multiple treatment options. The results showed that students in the intervention group more frequently included cost during their treatment option presentation than did students in the no intervention group. The instructor ratings showed that the intervention group included all key treatment option components except duration more frequently than did the no intervention group. However, the simulation experience did not result in significantly more effective student-patient clinical communication on any of the items measured. This study presents limited evidence of the effectiveness of a standardized patient simulation to improve dental students' long-term clinical communication skills with respect to thorough presentation of treatment options to a patient.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Effect, Effectiveness, Simulation, Learning, Communication, Education in Scotland, The Instructor


Audience response systems have become more commonplace in radiology residency programs in the last 10 years, as a means to engage learners and promote improved learning and retention. A variety of systems are currently in use. RSNA Diagnosis Live™ provides unique features that are innovative, particularly for radiology resident education. One specific example is the ability to annotate questions with subspecialty tags, which allows resident performance to be tracked over time. In addition, deficiencies in learning can be monitored for each trainee and analytics can be provided, allowing documentation of resident performance improvement. Finally, automated feedback is given not only to the instructor, but also to the trainee. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©) RSNA, 2017.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Pathology, Physician, Skill, Performance, The Instructor, Sunday School


Sustained attention has been devoted to studying the factors that support (or thwart) individuals' enjoyment of, interest in, and value judgments regarding, their exercise activities. We employed a resistance-inducing (i.e., inoculation theory) messaging technique with the aim of protecting these desirable perceptions in the face of environmental conditions designed to undermine one’s positive exercise experiences. Autonomously-motivated exercisers (N = 146, Mage = 20.57, SD = 4.02) performed a 25-minute, group-based, instructor-led exercise circuit, in which the activities were deliberately monotonous, and during which the confederate instructor acted in a disinterested, unsupportive, and critical manner. Shortly before the session, participants received either a control message containing general information about the exercise class, or an inoculation message containing a forewarning about potential challenges to participants' enjoyment/interest/value perceptions during the class, as well as information about how participants might maintain positive perceptions in the face of these challenges. Despite there being no between-condition differences in pre-session mood or general exercise motives, inoculated (relative to control) participants reported greater interest/enjoyment in the exercise session and higher perceptions of need support from the instructor. Perceptions of need support mediated the relationship between message condition and interest/enjoyment.

Concepts: Exercise, Sociology, Communication, Control, Face, Inoculation, Message, The Instructor


Students' judgments of their own learning are often misled by perceptions of fluency-the ease with which information is presented during learning. Lectures represent important learning experiences that contain variations in fluency, but have not been extensively studied. In the current study, students watched a 22-min videotaped lecture that was delivered by the same instructor in either a fluent (strong, confident, and deliberate) manner, or in a disfluent (uncertain, hesitant, and disengaged) manner. Students then predicted their score on an upcoming test on the information, rated the instructor on traditional evaluation measures, and took a multiple-choice test on the information immediately (Experiment 1), after 10 min (Experiment 2), or after 1 day (Experiment 3). The fluent instructor was rated significantly higher than the disfluent instructor, but test scores did not consistently differ between the 2 conditions. Though students did not indicate higher confidence overall in learning from a fluent instructor, Experiment 3 found that when participants base their confidence on the instructor, those in the fluent condition were more likely to be overconfident. These findings indicate that instructor fluency leads to higher ratings of instructors and can lead to higher confidence, but it does not necessarily lead to better learning. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Psychology, Statistics, Assessment, Empiricism, Confidence interval, Item bank, Confidence, The Instructor


Telemedicine is widely used for medical education but few studies directly investigate how telemedicine teaching compares to conventional in-person teaching. Here we determine whether telemedicine teaching is as effective as in-person teaching for the acquisition of an ultrasound skill important in trauma care. Nurses with no prior ultrasound experience (n = 10) received study material and a teaching session on how to locate and image the hepatorenal space (Morison’s pouch). One group of nurses was taught in-person (In-person Group) and the other group was taught via telemedicine (Telemedicine Group). Telemedicine allowed two-way audio and visual communication between the instructor and the nurses. A comparison of the teaching techniques showed that telemedicine teaching was equivalent to in-person teaching for the acquisition of practical and theoretical skills required to locate Morison’s pouch. The average time required to locate Morison’s pouch after teaching was similar between both groups. The results demonstrate that telemedicine teaching is as effective as in-person teaching for the acquisition of bedside ultrasound skills necessary to identify Morison’s pouch. Remote teaching of these bedside ultrasound skills may help in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal bleeding in rural healthcare centers.

Concepts: Education, Skill, Learning, School, Teacher, History of education, The Instructor


(1) To quantify acute changes in acoustic parameters of the voices of group fitness instructors (GFIs) before and after exercise instruction. (2) To determine whether these changes are discernible perceptually by the instructor.

Concepts: The Instructor