SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Technical support

178

We used a mixed-methods approach to explore the relationships between participants' perceptions of family members' diabetes self-care knowledge, family members' diabetes-specific supportive and nonsupportive behaviors, and participants' medication adherence and glycemic control (A1C).

Concepts: Biology, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, Insulin resistance, Support, Technical support

114

Individuals in close relationships help each other in many ways, from listening to each other’s problems, to making each other feel understood, to providing practical support. However, it is unclear if these supportive behaviors track each other across days and as stable tendencies in close relationships. Further, although past work suggests that giving support improves providers' well-being, the specific features of support provision that improve providers' psychological lives remain unclear. We addressed these gaps in knowledge through a daily diary study that comprehensively assessed support provision and its effects on well-being. We found that providers' emotional support (e.g., empathy) and instrumental support represent distinct dimensions of support provision, replicating prior work. Crucially, emotional support, but not instrumental support, consistently predicted provider well-being. These 2 dimensions also interacted, such that instrumental support enhanced well-being of both providers and recipients, but only when providers were emotionally engaged while providing support. These findings illuminate the nature of support provision and suggest targets for interventions to enhance well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Psychology, Personality psychology, Interpersonal relationship, Empathy, Emotion, Feeling, Technical support, William James

31

Deep learning has become a promising approach for automated support for clinical diagnosis. When medical data samples are limited, collaboration among multiple institutions is necessary to achieve high algorithm performance. However, sharing patient data often has limitations due to technical, legal, or ethical concerns. In this study, we propose methods of distributing deep learning models as an attractive alternative to sharing patient data.

Concepts: Medicine, Medical imaging, Physician, Distribution, Machine learning, Psychiatry, Technical support, Algorithmic efficiency

28

Although problem gambling is becoming more prevalent, research shows that many problem gamblers do not seek help. Online social support forums have become an increasingly popular option for receiving support for problem gambling. Few researchers have explored how participants within these forums interact, or what is supportive about participation in online communities. Melding netnography (ethnographic approaches online), discourse analysis, and ethnomethodology, we analyzed the discursive interactions of self-identified problem gamblers on an online forum. We report on the characteristics of this unique setting, the common discourses that members used, and how they discursively accomplished various interactional tasks, including constructing identities, and negotiating membership, legitimacy, and support. We conclude with recommendations for practitioners and researchers interested in better understanding people trying to overcome problem gambling and other behavioral concerns.

Concepts: Participation, Anthropology, Technical support, Gambling, Discourse analysis, Discourse, Conversation analysis, Internet forum

27

A growing body of literature documents emphasizes the value of the hybridisation of different types of knowledge for environmental management. This is particularly true for silvopastoralism: although silvopastoralism appears to be a relevant way to manage large forests areas in the northern Mediterranean region, knowledge pertaining to silvopastoralism is distributed between foresters and pastoralists, with a lack of shared knowledge making joint action difficult. The consensus about the need of knowledge hybridisation, however, is not enough to make it happen and a whole field of research investigates the methods which can be used to create shared knowledge. This paper studies one of these methods - the participation of experts in modelling - used in a French research development program to design a technical support tool for silvopastoralism. After having described the modelling process conducted by forestry and pastoralists experts, it presents the conceptual silvopastoralism model they produced and analyses the shared knowledge - especially intermediary concepts and expert typologies - it contains. The paper finally outlines the conditions needed for the participation of experts in modelling to create shared knowledge, its limitations in generating quantitative expertise and discusses how the knowledge created can be shared with a wider audience.

Concepts: Scientific method, Agriculture, Experience, Concept, Expert, Technical support, Expert witness, Pastoralism

23

Supporting comparison is a common and diverse challenge in visualization. Such support is difficult to design because solutions must address both the specifics of their scenario as well as the general issues of comparison. This paper aids designers by providing a strategy for considering those general issues. It presents four considerations that abstract comparison. These considerations identify issues and categorize solutions in a domain independent manner. The first considers how the common elements of comparison-a target set of items that are related and an action the user wants to perform on that relationship-are present in an analysis problem. The second considers why these elements lead to challenges because of their scale, in number of items, complexity of items, or complexity of relationship. The third considers what strategies address the identified scaling challenges, grouping solutions into three broad categories. The fourth considers which visual designs map to these strategies to provide solutions for a comparison analysis problem. In sequence, these considerations provide a process for developers to consider support for comparison in the design of visualization tools. Case studies show how these considerations can help in the design and evaluation of visualization solutions for comparison problems.

Concepts: Chemical element, Case study, Design, Problem solving, Strategy, Graphic design, Problem, Technical support

19

Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) has been classically employed as a rescue therapy for patients with respiratory failure not treatable with conventional mechanical ventilation alone. In recent years, however, the timing of ECMO initiation has been readdressed and ECMO is often started earlier in the time course of respiratory failure. Furthermore, some centers are starting to use ECMO as a first line of treatment, i.e., as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation in awake, non-intubated, spontaneously breathing patients with respiratory failure (“awake” ECMO). There is a strong rationale for this type of respiratory support as it avoids several side effects related to sedation, intubation, and mechanical ventilation. However, the complexity of the patient-ECMO interactions, the difficulties related to respiratory monitoring, and the management of an awake patient on extracorporeal support together pose a major challenge for the intensive care unit staff. Here, we review the use of vv-ECMO in awake, spontaneously breathing patients with respiratory failure, highlighting the pros and cons of this approach, analyzing the pathophysiology of patient-ECMO interactions, detailing some of the technical aspects, and summarizing the initial clinical experience gained over the past years.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Patient, Intensive care medicine, Mechanical ventilation, Therapy, Technical support, Extracorporeal, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

17

Over the 5-year period ending in 2018, 16 countries with a combined birth cohort of over 6 million infants requiring life-saving immunizations are scheduled to transition (graduate) from outside financial and technical support for a number of their essential vaccines. This support has been provided over the past decade by the GAVI Alliance. Will these 16 countries be able to continue to sustain these vaccination efforts? To address this issue, GAVI and its partners are supporting transition planning, entailing country assessments of readiness to graduate and intensive dialogue with national officials to ensure a smooth transition process. This approach was piloted in Bhutan, Republic of Congo, Georgia, Moldova and Mongolia in 2012. The pilot showed that graduating countries are highly heterogeneous in their capacity to assume responsibility for their immunization programmes. Although all possess certain strengths, each country displayed weaknesses in some of the following areas: budgeting for vaccine purchase, national procurement practices, performance of national regulatory agencies, and technical capacity for vaccine planning and advocacy. The 2012 pilot experience further demonstrated the value of transition planning processes and tools. As a result, GAVI has decided to continue with transition planning in 2013 and beyond. As the graduation process advances, GAVI and graduating countries should continue to contribute to global collective thinking about how developing countries can successfully end their dependence on donor aid and achieve self-sufficiency.

Concepts: Immune system, Vaccine, Vaccination, Technical support

15

The objective of the study was to evaluate practices in Spanish hospitals after intrauterine death in terms of medical/ technical care and bereavement support care.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Technical support

15

Objective: To review current literature that supports gender identity having a biologic basis.Methods: A traditional literature review.Results: Evidence that there is a biological basis for gender identity primarily involves 1. data on gender identity in patients with disorders of sex development (also known as differences of sex development) along with 2. neuroanatomical differences associated with gender identity.Conclusions: Although the mechanisms remain to determined, there is strong support from the literature that there is a biological basis for gender identity.

Concepts: Sexual dimorphism, Gender, Sex, Gender identity, Support, Technical support, Homosexuality, Biology of gender