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Concept: Syrup


Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada.

Concepts: United States, Maize, International trade, Corn syrup, Syrup, Free trade, North American Free Trade Agreement, Trade bloc


Cross-sectional studies have linked intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened beverages with asthma in school children.

Concepts: Cross-sectional study, Starch, High school, Fructose, High-fructose corn syrup, Corn syrup, Sweeteners, Syrup


The determination of honey authenticity is of importance to ensure its quality and safety. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect adulterated honey. A simple, rapid, and effective HPLC-DAD method was developed to detect honey adulteration by rice syrup, using a characteristic compound from rice syrup, which is presently difficult to detect by current analytical methods. The characteristic compound was identified as 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside (AFGP) by MS and NMR. Based on HPLC analyses, the average concentration of AFGP was 92 ± 60 mg/kg in rice syrup. However, AFGP was not detected in any of the natural honey samples, so it could be used as a maker for the detection of honey adulteration by rice syrup. The developed HPLC-DAD method enabled a rapid detection of honey samples adulterated with 10% rice syrup. Using the developed method, 16 out of 186 honey samples from different markets were found to be adulterated with rice syrup.

Concepts: Honey, Rice, Market, Sweeteners, Adulterant, Syrup, Brown rice syrup


The American public is increasingly concerned about risks associated with food additives like high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). To promote its product as safe, the Corn Refiners Association (CRA) employed two forms of straw-person arguments. First, the CRA opportunistically misrepresented HFCS opposition as inept. Second, the CRA strategically chose to refute claims that were easier to defeat while remaining ambiguous about more complex points of contention. We argue that CRA’s discursive contributions represented unreasonable yet sustainable use of straw-person arguments in debates surrounding health and risk.

Concepts: Starch, Food additive, Argumentation theory, High-fructose corn syrup, Corn syrup, Sweeteners, Fallacy, Syrup


Excess fructose consumption is hypothesized to be associated with risk for metabolic disease. Actual fructose consumption levels are difficult to estimate because of the unlabeled quantity of fructose in beverages. The aims of this study were threefold: 1) re-examine the fructose content in previously tested beverages using two additional assay methods capable of detecting other sugars, especially maltose, 2) compare data across all methods to determine the actual free fructose-to-glucose ratio in beverages made either with or without high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and 3) expand the analysis to determine fructose content in commonly consumed juice products.

Concepts: Enzyme, Starch, Fructose, Sucrose, High-fructose corn syrup, Corn syrup, Sweeteners, Syrup


Herein we report our results on the anti-inflammatory activity of quebecol, a polyphenolic compound discovered in maple syrup. Bioassays demonstrated that quebecol has an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced NF-κB activation and inhibits the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. We also prepared and tested precursors of quebecol and its derivatives corresponding to its substructures of interest, with the aim to study the structure-activity relationships. Comparing the results obtained for all tested compounds allowed the identification of the main moiety responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of quebecol.

Concepts: Cytokine, Polyphenol, Maple syrup, Syrup


Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs.

Concepts: Enzyme, Starch, Fructose, Sucrose, High-fructose corn syrup, Corn syrup, Sweeteners, Syrup


This work describes the significance of graft copolymer induced flocculation process in sugarcane juice clarification. The naturally occurring cinnamic acid has been successfully incorporated into the structure of sesbania gum through microwave assisted technique (hybrid of conventional and microwave based method) to develop novel, non-toxic, eco-friendly product with highly extended structure. The customized structure of gum derivative has been characterized by a number of modern techniques like13C NMR, FTIR, SEM, XRD, TGA, DSC, elemental and viscometric analysis. The separation of suspended colloidal impurities from cane juice has been achieved through the application of synthesized gum derivative as a flocculant. The clarification performance of the graft copolymer has been evaluated in terms of turbidity, absorbance, and degree brix (°bx). The flocculant exhibited maximum efficiency at 1.0 ppm (optimized dose) without altering the nutritional parameters (% sugar content). The clarified juice thus obtained may be used as a beverage for direct consumption or for the manufacture of white sugar.

Concepts: Polymer, Colloid, Sugar, Oenology, Centrifugation, Flocculation, Sugarcane, Syrup


This study used various parameters of honey to develop a potentially more robust approach to the detection of adulterated honey. For this purpose, 25 multifloral, natural honey samples and 20 samples of adulterated honey produced by bees that had been fed supplementary sucrose syrup were analysed. The mean total phenolic content of the natural honeys was considerably higher than in the adulterated honeys at 157 ± 13 and 35.2 ± 7.3 mg GAE/100 g, respectively. Similarly, considerable variation was determined between natural and adulterated honeys in terms of total flavonoids (3.3 ± 0.3 and 2.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/100 g, respectively), antiradical activity (87.9 ± 12 and 163 ± 11 mg/mL, respectively) and proline content (202 ± 26 and 71.1 ± 21.6 mg/kg, respectively.) The potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents of natural honeys were also higher than in adulterated honeys (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the determination of the proline level, phenolic content, antioxidant activity and mineral profile may collectively provide a more holistic method approach to the differentiation of natural and adulterated honey, and also for comparing their food values.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Food, Sugar, Honey, Fructose, Bee, Sucrose, Syrup


The coarse perlite 40-80 mesh was selected as an immobilizing material and put into a packed bed reactor (PBR) to continuously convert maltose to isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs). The PBR was prepared by mixing the thermo-inactivated cells (TIC) from Aspergillus niger J2 strain with the coarse perlite, then the mixture was put into an overpressure-resistant column. Compared with diatomite 40-80 mesh and thin perlite 80-120 mesh in PBR, coarse perlite was chosen as the best filtration aid, when the ratio of coarse perlite versus TIC was 1:1. The thermal and pH stability of the free and immobilized TIC and the optimum conditions for the transglycosylation reactions were determined. The results show that approximately 75 and 82% and 87 and 91% of α-glucosidase activity were reserved for free and immobilized TIC at temperatures from 30 to 60 °C and pH from 3.00 to 7.00 for 12 h, respectively. With 30% malt syrup under the conditions of 50 °C and pH 4.00, a mini-scale packed bed reactor (Mi-PBR) and medium-scale packed bed reactor (Me-PBR) could continuously produce IMO over 25 and 34 days with the yield of effective IMO (eIMO) ≥ 35% and total IMO (tIMO) ≥ 50%, respectively. The strategy of mixing the coarse perlite with TIC in PBR is a novel approach to continuously produce IMO and has great application potential in industry.

Concepts: Enzyme, Ratio, Aspergillus, Continuity, Aspergillus niger, Diatomaceous earth, Sweeteners, Syrup