Non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) is a large and costly problem. It has a lifetime prevalence of 80% and results in high levels of healthcare cost. It is a major cause for long term sickness amongst the workforce and is associated with high levels of fear avoidance and kinesiophobia. Stabilisation (or ‘core stability’) exercises have been suggested to reduce symptoms of pain and disability and form an effective treatment. Despite it being the most commonly used form of physiotherapy treatment within the UK there is a lack of positive evidence to support its use. The aims of this systematic review update is to investigate the effectiveness of stabilisation exercises for the treatment of NSLBP, and compare any effectiveness to other forms of exercise.
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to explore the formation and impact of attitudes and beliefs among people experiencing acute and chronic low back pain. METHODS Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 participants with acute low back pain (less than 6 weeks' duration) and 11 participants with chronic low back pain (more than 3 months' duration) from 1 geographical region within New Zealand. Data were analyzed using an Interpretive Description framework. RESULTS Participants' underlying beliefs about low back pain were influenced by a range of sources. Participants experiencing acute low back pain faced considerable uncertainty and consequently sought more information and understanding. Although participants searched the Internet and looked to family and friends, health care professionals had the strongest influence upon their attitudes and beliefs. Clinicians influenced their patients' understanding of the source and meaning of symptoms, as well as their prognostic expectations. Such information and advice could continue to influence the beliefs of patients for many years. Many messages from clinicians were interpreted as meaning the back needed to be protected. These messages could result in increased vigilance, worry, guilt when adherence was inadequate, or frustration when protection strategies failed. Clinicians could also provide reassurance, which increased confidence, and advice, which positively influenced the approach to movement and activity. CONCLUSIONS Health care professionals have a considerable and enduring influence upon the attitudes and beliefs of people with low back pain. It is important that this opportunity is used to positively influence attitudes and beliefs.
Social media use is ever increasing amongst young adults and has previously been shown to have negative effects on body image, depression, social comparison, and disordered eating. One eating disorder of interest in this context is orthorexia nervosa, an obsession with eating healthily. High orthorexia nervosa prevalence has been found in populations who take an active interest in their health and body and is frequently comorbid with anorexia nervosa. Here, we investigate links between social media use, in particularly Instagram and orthorexia nervosa symptoms.
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. With mTBI comes symptoms that include headaches, fatigue, depression, anxiety and irritability, as well as impaired cognitive function. Symptom resolution is thought to occur within 3 months post-injury, with the exception of a small percentage of individuals who are said to experience persistent post-concussion syndrome. The number of individuals who experience persistent symptoms appears to be low despite clear evidence of longer-term pathophysiological changes resulting from mTBI. In light of the incongruency between these longer-term changes in brain pathology and the number of individuals with longer-term mTBI-related symptoms, particularly impaired cognitive function, we performed a scoping review of the literature that behaviourally assessed short- and long-term cognitive function in individuals with a single mTBI, with the goal of identifying the impact of a single concussion on cognitive function in the chronic stage post-injury. CINAHL, Embase, and Medline/Ovid were searched July 2015 for studies related to concussion and cognitive impairment. Data relating to the presence/absence of cognitive impairment were extracted from 45 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Results indicate that, in contrast to the prevailing view that most symptoms of concussion are resolved within 3 months post-injury, approximately half of individuals with a single mTBI demonstrate long-term cognitive impairment. Study limitations notwithstanding, these findings highlight the need to carefully examine the long-term implications of a single mTBI.
To ascertain whether the use of oral glucosamine influences symptoms or functional outcomes in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) thought to be related to spinal osteoarthritis (OA).
Current treatment options for depression are limited by efficacy, cost, availability, side effects, and acceptability to patients. Several studies have looked at the association between magnesium and depression, yet its role in symptom management is unclear. The objective of this trial was to test whether supplementation with over-the-counter magnesium chloride improves symptoms of depression. An open-label, blocked, randomized, cross-over trial was carried out in outpatient primary care clinics on 126 adults (mean age 52; 38% male) diagnosed with and currently experiencing mild-to-moderate symptoms with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores of 5-19. The intervention was 6 weeks of active treatment (248 mg of elemental magnesium per day) compared to 6 weeks of control (no treatment). Assessments of depression symptoms were completed at bi-weekly phone calls. The primary outcome was the net difference in the change in depression symptoms from baseline to the end of each treatment period. Secondary outcomes included changes in anxiety symptoms as well as adherence to the supplement regimen, appearance of adverse effects, and intention to use magnesium supplements in the future. Between June 2015 and May 2016, 112 participants provided analyzable data. Consumption of magnesium chloride for 6 weeks resulted in a clinically significant net improvement in PHQ-9 scores of -6.0 points (CI -7.9, -4.2; P<0.001) and net improvement in Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 scores of -4.5 points (CI -6.6, -2.4; P<0.001). Average adherence was 83% by pill count. The supplements were well tolerated and 61% of participants reported they would use magnesium in the future. Similar effects were observed regardless of age, gender, baseline severity of depression, baseline magnesium level, or use of antidepressant treatments. Effects were observed within two weeks. Magnesium is effective for mild-to-moderate depression in adults. It works quickly and is well tolerated without the need for close monitoring for toxicity.
Hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania, HPD) is a disabling condition that is characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Although there is evidence of structural grey matter abnormalities in HPD, there is a paucity of data on white matter integrity. The aim of this study was to explore white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in subjects with HPD and healthy controls. Sixteen adult female subjects with HPD and 13 healthy female controls underwent DTI. Hair-pulling symptom severity, anxiety and depressive symptoms were also assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze data on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). There were no differences in DTI measures between HPD subjects and healthy controls. However, there were significant associations of increased MD in white matter tracts of the fronto-striatal-thalamic pathway with longer HPD duration and increased HPD severity. Our findings suggest that white matter integrity in fronto-striatal-thalamic pathways in HPD is related to symptom duration and severity. The molecular basis of measures of white matter integrity in HPD deserves further exploration.
Chronic day-to-day symptoms of orthostatic intolerance are the most notable features of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). However, we have encountered patients with such symptoms and excessive tachycardia but with no symptoms during the tilt-table test (TTT). We aimed to investigate whether POTS patients with chronic orthostatic intolerance always present orthostatic symptoms during the TTT and analyze the factors underlying symptom manifestation during this test.
BACKGROUND: To assess the clinical and laboratory parameters, response to therapy and development of antituberculosis (TB) drug resistance in pulmonary TB (PTB) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and without DM. METHODS: Using a prospective design, 227 of 310 new cases of culture-positive PTB diagnosed at the Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital and the Chonburi Hospital between April 2010 and July 2012 that met the study criteria were selected. Data regarding clinical and laboratory parameters, drug susceptibility and treatment outcomes were compared between PTB patients with DM and those without DM. To control for age, the patients were stratified into two age groups (< 50 and ≥ 50 years) and their data were analysed. RESULTS: Of the 227 patients, 37 (16.3%) had DM, of which 26 (70.3%) had been diagnosed with DM prior to PTB diagnosis and 11 (29.7%) had developed DM at PTB diagnosis. After controlling for age, no significant differences were found between the two groups regarding mycobacterium burden, sputum-culture conversion rate, evidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, frequency of adverse drug events from anti-TB medications, treatment outcomes and relapse rate. The presenting symptoms of anorexia (p = 0.050) and haemoptysis (p = 0.036) were observed significantly more frequently in PTB patients with DM, while the presenting symptom of cough was observed significantly more frequently in PTB patients without DM (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma glucose levels should be monitored in all newly diagnosed PTB patients and a similar treatment regimen should be prescribed to PTB patients with DM and those without DM in high TB-burden countries.
The jobs of Latino manual laborers place their mental and physical health at risk. This study evaluates the associations among musculoskeletal pain, mental health, and work organization in Latino manual laborers. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers (n = 189) in North Carolina were interviewed for self-reported musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, stress, work safety climate, and precarious job status. More non-farmworkers than farmworkers had neck and shoulder pain, but they did not differ in other areas of musculoskeletal pain. Depressive symptoms had a significant association with neck and shoulder pain (p<0.05). Precariousness had a significant association with back pain (p<0.05). Farmworker participants had H-2A visas and were afforded some protection compared to non-farmworker manual workers. Research is needed to improve policy that relieves pain and improves mental health for all Latino manual workers.