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Concept: Surnames


To examine the construct validity of the session rating perceived exertion (s-RPE) assessed with the Borg CR100® scale to measure training loads in elite soccer and to examine if the CR100® is interchangeable and can provide more accurate ratings compared to the CR10® scale.

Concepts: Psychometrics, Construct validity, Scale, Nielsen ratings, Borg, Surnames, Interchangeable parts


A sample of 416 males from western and eastern Andalusia has been jointly analyzed for surnames and Y-chromosome haplogroups and haplotypes. The observed number of different surnames was 222 (353 when the second surname of the Spanish system of naming is considered). The great majority of recorded surnames have a Castilian-Leonese origin, while Catalan or Basque surnames have not been found. A few Arab-related surnames appear but none discernible of Sephardic-Jewish descent. Low correlation among surnames with different population frequencies and Y-chromosome markers, at different levels of genetic resolution, has been observed in Andalusia. This finding could be explained mainly by the very low rate of monophyletic surnames because of the historical process of surname ascription and the resulting high frequencies of the most common Spanish surnames. The introduction of surnames in Spain during the Middle Ages coincided with Reconquest of the territories under Islamic rule, and Muslims and Jews progressively adopted the present male line surname system. Sampled surnames and Y-chromosome lineages fit well a power-law distribution and observed isonymy is very close to that of the general population. Besides, our data and results show that the reliability of the isonymy method should be questioned because of the high rate of polyphyletic surnames, even in small geographic regions and autochthonous populations. Random isonymy would be consistently dependent of the most common surname frequencies in the population.

Concepts: Middle Ages, Spanish language, Al-Andalus, Europe, Spain, Islam, Andalusia, Surnames


In a recent publication the name Solimonadaceae Losey et al. 2013 has been proposed as a replacement name for the family name Sinobacteraceae Zhou et al. 2008. This course of action contravenes the current Code governing the nomenclature of prokaryotes, making Solimonadaceae Losey et al. 2013 an illegitimate name that neither has claim to priority nor can be used as a correct name. Closer examination of publications dealing with the taxonomy of members of the genera Solimonas and Sinobacter and the placement of these taxa at the rank of family and order reveal problems associated with the application of the family names Sinobacteraceae Zhou et al. 2008, Nevskiaceae Henrici and Johnson 1935 (Approved Lists 1980) and Lysobacteraceae Christensen and Cook 1978 (Approved Lists 1980) and the order names Lysobacterales Christensen and Cook 1978 (Approved Lists 1980) and Xanthomonadales Saddler and Bradbury 2005.

Concepts: January 1, Surnames, December 2, April 22, January 14, February 13, December 11, April 8



The author list was presented as last name, first name. The names should have been listed as:Christoph Kraus, Manfred Klöbl, Martin Tik, Bastian Auer, Thomas Vanicek, Nicole Geissberger, Daniela M. Pfabigan, Andreas Hahn, Michael Woletz, Katharina Paul, Arkadiusz Komorowski, Siegfried Kasper, Christian Windischberger, Claus Lamm, Rupert Lanzenberger.

Concepts: Pulvinar, Chinese name, Personal name, Given name, American film actors, American television actors, Surnames, Given names


This article [1] was unintentionally published twice in this journal, by the same authors.The following [1] should be considered the version of record and used for citation purposes: “Neharika Sharma and Stephen O'Hagan, The role of oral co-trimoxazole in treating Nocardia farcinica keratitis: a case report. Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection (2016) 6:21 DOI 10.1186/s12348-016-0087-y”.The duplicate [2]: “Neharika Sharma and Stephen O'Hagan, The role of oral co-trimoxazole in treating Nocardia farcinica keratitis: a case report. Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection (2016) 6:23 DOI 10.1186/s12348-016-0091-2” is to be ignored.BioMed Central apologizes to the readers of the journal for not detecting the duplication during the publication process.

Concepts: Inflammation, Gene duplication, Publishing, Surnames


EBN perspectives bring together key issues from the commentaries in one of our nursing topic themes.

Concepts: Surnames


Management of difficult airway is far from optimal despite of continuous progress in science and technology. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current research in the field and bring readers up to date.

Concepts: Mathematics, Science, The Current, Technology, Surnames


Rice blast, caused by the ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae (Mo), imposes a major constraint on rice productivity. Managing the disease through the deployment of host resistance requires a close understanding of race structure of the pathogen population.

Concepts: Fungus, Plant pathogens and diseases, Sordariomycetes, Surnames


Infectious diseases is known as a serious medical discipline. Nevertheless some experiences related by patients and unusual studies can bring a smile on your face. In this article, you will find a sample of rare and original studies in this field, extracted from a collection of comical published medical articles.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Infectious disease, Infection, Physician, Knowledge, Procedural knowledge, Surnames