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Concept: Surgeon General of the United States

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The US Surgeon General has concluded that e-cigarette aerosol is not harmless and can contain harmful and potentially harmful chemicals, including nicotine. We assessed factors associated with adults' perceptions of harm related to children’s exposure to secondhand aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs).

Concepts: Exposure, Surgeon General of the United States

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Surgeons general of the United States have often championed important causes that improve the nation’s health. Leroy Burney and Luther Terry took on the issue of smoking and health. C. Everett Koop championed the treatment of HIV-AIDS as a medical condition. With the nomination of Dr. Vivek Murthy, who aims to take on the epidemic of obesity, President Barack Obama is striving to continue this tradition. Murthy, whose parents immigrated to the United States from India, has lived the American dream. He was educated at two of our nation’s most prestigious universities, earning his undergraduate degree at Harvard and both . . .

Concepts: Hawaii, United States, President of the United States, Barack Obama, Iraq War, Illinois, Democratic Party, Surgeon General of the United States

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We investigated how industry claim-makers countered concerns about obesity and other nutrition-related diseases in newspaper coverage from 2000, the year before the US Surgeon General’s Call to Action on obesity, through 2012. We found that the food and beverage industry evolved in its response. The defense arguments were made by trade associations, industry-funded nonprofit groups, and individual companies representing the packaged food industry, restaurants, and the nonalcoholic beverage industry. Individual companies used the news primarily to promote voluntary self-regulation, whereas trade associations and industry-supported nonprofit groups directly attacked potential government regulations. There was, however, a shift away from framing obesity as a personal issue toward an overall message that the food and beverage industry wants to be “part of the solution” to the public health crisis. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 17, 2015: e1-e9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302819).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Nutrition, Food, Malnutrition, Regulation, Food industry, Surgeon General of the United States, United States Public Health Service

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Behavioral patterns have been identified as the leading determinant of preventable death - with smoking the dominant behavioral cause of premature death.(1) Smokers die, on average, more than a decade before nonsmokers.(2) Years of healthy life are lost because smoking also decreases quality of life, lowers productivity in the workplace, and leads to many chronic conditions and their associated health care costs.(3) The burden of smoking is thoroughly documented by reports from the U.S. Surgeon General. Nevertheless, the study by Carter et al. in this issue of the Journal, which followed more than 900,000 men and women and recorded more . . .

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Health, Death, Life, Tobacco smoking, Smoke, Surgeon General of the United States

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In 2011 the United States Surgeon General issued a call to action to “identify and address obstacles to greater availability of safe banked donor milk for fragile infants.” The purpose of this study is to analyze patterns in donor human milk (DHM) and fortifier use in level 2, 3, and 4 neonatal facilities in 2015 and to identify factors associated with non-use.

Concepts: Childbirth, Infant, United States, Milk, Breastfeeding, U.S. state, Infant mortality, Surgeon General of the United States

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Surgeon General Thomas Parran Jr was once viewed as a path-breaking leader, but his legacy is now highly contested. Scholars of national health insurance have viewed Parran as an impediment to government-backed insurance, and revelations about his role in the Tuskegee Study and in the Public Health Service’s experiments in Guatemala have cast a shadow over his career. Surgeon General from 1936 to 1948, Parran led the Public Health Service during the development of key features of the modern American health system and was involved in critical debates over the role of the national government in health. I argue that Parran is best understood not as an opponent of insurance but as the proponent of an approach to health policy that sought to link public health and individual medicine. A pragmatic bureaucrat, Parran believed that effective policymaking required compromise with the American Medical Association.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Healthcare reform, Universal health care, Public health, Health, Surgeon General of the United States

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Introduction The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) is a national network of community-based volunteer groups created in 2002 by the Office of the United States Surgeon General (Rockville, Maryland USA) to augment the nation’s ability to respond to medical and public health emergencies. However, there is little evidence-based literature available to guide hospitals on the optimal use of medical volunteers and hesitancy on the part of hospitals to use them. Hypothesis/Problem This study sought to determine how MRC volunteers can be used in hospital-based disasters through their participation in a full-scale exercise.

Concepts: Universal health care, Health, United States, U.S. state, Maryland, Hazard, Humid subtropical climate, Surgeon General of the United States

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The purpose of this study is to assess changes since the launch of the US Surgeon General’s campaign in the public’s beliefs about the role of genetics in the etiology of cancer, as well as changes in recording family health history. We conducted a survey of 480 Western New York adults, assessing: (1) experiences with cancer, (2) beliefs about cancer and genetics, and (3) practices of recording family health history. Most respondents were aware of the importance of family history. The sample also showed increased knowledge about cancer and genetics compared with a previous survey. However, only 7 % kept written records that included medical conditions, which was not different from a previous survey. Time constraints, apathy, and reluctance to find out negative health information were the most reported barriers. Results suggest a need for continued education of the public, with increased emphasis on written family health records.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Genetic disorder, Nutrition, Biology, Greek loanwords, Medical history, Surgeon General of the United States

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Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cardiovascular condition that represents a spectrum of disorders with a gradient of increased risk of adverse outcomes. The United States Surgeon General estimated that approximately 100,000 to 180,000 PE-related deaths occur in the U.S. annually and that PE is the most preventable cause of death among hospitalized patients. Risk stratification is critical to identify the patients who may benefit from advanced therapy. This review will provide an overview of PE pathophysiology, evidence-based risk stratification strategies for patients with acute PE, a summary of traditional and novel oral anticoagulant options, and an in-depth discussion on the utilization of advanced therapeutic options, including systemic fibrinolysis, catheter-based pharmacomechanical therapy, and surgical embolectomy.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Heart, United States, Pulmonary embolism, Thrombus, Embolism, Surgeon General of the United States

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The year 2014 marked the 50th Anniversary of the first Surgeon General’s Report. This paper estimates the effect of tobacco control policies in the U.S. after the 1964 Report using the SimSmoke tobacco control simulation model.

Concepts: Computer graphics, Cybernetics, World Health Organization, Kentucky, 1882, Surgeon General of the United States, 1888, 1880