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Concept: Summer Olympic Games


Oral health is important both for well-being and successful elite sporting performance. Reports from Olympic Games have found significant treatment needs; however, few studies have examined oral health directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health, the determinants of oral health and the effect of oral health on well-being, training and performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Games.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Olympic Games, London, Summer Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2012 Summer Olympics, Sebastian Coe, 2016 Summer Olympics


Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall travel volume to the Games represents a very small fraction (<0.25%) of the total estimated 2015 travel volume to Zika-affected countries,(†) highlighting the unlikely scenario that Zika importation would be solely attributable to travel to the Games. To prevent Zika virus infection and its complications among athletes and visitors to the Games and importation of Zika virus into countries that could sustain local transmission, pregnant women should not travel to the Games, mosquito bites should be avoided while traveling and for 3 weeks after returning home, and measures should be taken to prevent sexual transmission (Box).

Concepts: Olympic Games, Aedes, Rio de Janeiro, Summer Olympic Games, 2016 Summer Olympics, Paralympic Games, Estádio do Maracanã, 2015


Previous studies have reported decreased birth weight associated with increased air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy. However, it is not clear when during pregnancy increases in air pollution are associated with the largest differences in birth weight.

Concepts: People's Republic of China, Pollution, Air pollution, Beijing, Summer Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, International Olympic Committee, Beijing National Stadium


The modern-day athlete participating in elite sports is exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendar. Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate load management is a significant risk factor for acute illness and the overtraining syndrome. The IOC convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load-including rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel-and health outcomes in sport. This paper summarises the results linking load to risk of illness and overtraining in athletes, and provides athletes, coaches and support staff with practical guidelines for appropriate load management to reduce the risk of illness and overtraining in sport. These include guidelines for prescription of training and competition load, as well as for monitoring of training, competition and psychological load, athlete well-being and illness. In the process, urgent research priorities were identified.

Concepts: Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, International Olympic Committee


Rio de Janeiro in Brazil will host the Summer Olympic Games in 2016. About 400,000 non-immune foreign tourists are expected to attend the games. As Brazil is the country with the highest number of dengue cases worldwide, concern about the risk of dengue for travelers is justified.

Concepts: Olympic Games, Rio de Janeiro, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics



Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a ‘Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Infectious disease, United States, Olympic Games, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Summer Olympic Games, 2016 Summer Olympics



SUMMARY Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Olympic Games, London, Summer Olympic Games, Paralympic Games, World Wheelchair and Amputee Games, 2012 Summer Paralympics, Special Olympics World Games


Abstract This article analyses the tactics employed by middle-distance (1500-m) and long-distance (5000-m) runners from an observational methodology perspective. The subject of investigation has received little attention from specialists in the field of athletics, with most research focusing on physiological studies of athlete performance. Using an ad hoc observation tool and a database containing systematically recorded data we detected time patterns (T-patterns) within the data recorded using the Theme software program (version 5.0), and analysed the tactics employed by winners of the men’s 1500-m and 5000-m finals of the World Championships in Athletics [Edmonton 2001, Paris 2003, Helsinki 2005 (1500-m final only), Osaka 2007 (1500-m final only), Berlin 2009 and Daegu 2011], the European Athletics Championships (Munich 2002, Göteborg 2006, and Barcelona 2010) and the Olympic Games (Sydney 2000, Athens 2004, Beijing 2008 and London 2012). T-pattern detection and investigation of the relationship between category systems corresponding to the criteria comprising the observation tool revealed both similarities (starting lane and lane used during race, runner’s position during race and sprint zone and lane) and differences (variations in pace, zones in which changes of pace occur, sprint initiation zone and winner’s position at the start of the sprint) between the two disciplines.

Concepts: United States, Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, Ancient Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, Athens, 2004 Summer Olympics, IAAF World Championships in Athletics