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Concept: Strain


Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in ‘muscle strain’. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh ‘muscle strain’.

Concepts: Muscle, Strain, Injuries, Injury, Flexion, Extension, Sprain, Thigh muscles


Hamstring strain injuries are amongst the most common and problematic injuries in a wide range of sports that involve high speed running. The comparatively high rate of hamstring injury recurrence is arguably the most concerning aspect of these injuries. A number of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors are proposed to predispose athletes to hamstring strains. Potentially, the persistence of risk factors and the development of maladaptations following injury may explain injury recurrence. Here, the role of neuromuscular inhibition following injury is discussed as a potential mechanism for several maladaptations associated with hamstring re-injury. These maladaptations include eccentric hamstring weakness, selective hamstring atrophy and shifts in the knee flexor torque-joint angle relationship. Current evidence indicates that athletes return to competition after hamstring injury having developed maladaptations that predispose them to further injury. When rehabilitating athletes to return to competition following hamstring strain injury, the role of neuromuscular inhibition in re-injury should be considered.

Concepts: Strain, Knee, Injuries, Injury, Flexion, Potential, Hamstring, Sprain


Accurate means to detect mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective and quantitative measures remain elusive. Conventional imaging typically detects no abnormalities despite post-concussive symptoms. In the present study, we recorded resting state magnetoencephalograms (MEG) from adults with mTBI and controls. Atlas-guided reconstruction of resting state activity was performed for 90 cortical and subcortical regions, and calculation of inter-regional oscillatory phase synchrony at various frequencies was performed. We demonstrate that mTBI is associated with reduced network connectivity in the delta and gamma frequency range (>30 Hz), together with increased connectivity in the slower alpha band (8-12 Hz). A similar temporal pattern was associated with correlations between network connectivity and the length of time between the injury and the MEG scan. Using such resting state MEG network synchrony we were able to detect mTBI with 88% accuracy. Classification confidence was also correlated with clinical symptom severity scores. These results provide the first evidence that imaging of MEG network connectivity, in combination with machine learning, has the potential to accurately detect and determine the severity of mTBI.

Concepts: Traumatic brain injury, Symptoms, Symptom, Cerebral cortex, Strain, Frequency, Post-concussion syndrome, Concussion


Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common complaint in active populations. More than 50% of all injuries in sports can be classified as sprains, strains, ruptures, or breaks of musculoskeletal tissues. Nutritional and/or exercise interventions that increase collagen synthesis and strengthen these tissues could have an important effect on injury rates.

Concepts: Nutrition, Collagen, Dietary supplement, Strain, Injuries, Injury, Sprain


Acute lateral ankle ligament injuries (ankle sprains) are common problems in acute medical care. The treatment variation observed for the acutely injured lateral ankle ligament complex suggests a lack of evidence-based management strategies for this problem.

Concepts: Health care, Strain, Injuries, Injury, Problem solving, Ankle, Sprained ankle, Sprain


Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury with a high rate of recurrence and associated costs. Recent studies have emphasised the effectiveness of both neuromuscular training and bracing for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Strain, Injuries, Injury, Recurrence relation, Sprain


We evaluated the limits of detection of 3 rapid influenza diagnostic tests-BD Veritor™ System for Flu A+B, Binax NOW® Influenza A+B, and QuickVue® Influenza-for influenza strains circulating in 2010-2012. Limits of detection varied by influenza strain, with Veritor™ Flu A+B test showing the lowest limit of detection for all strains.

Concepts: Virus, Antiviral drug, Influenza, Avian influenza, Strain, Orthomyxoviridae, Influenzavirus B, Reassortment


The hamstring muscles are susceptible to strain injury during sprinting, and the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) is reportedly the most frequently injured muscle. Therefore, elucidation of the risk factors is of particular concern for injury prevention.

Concepts: Muscle, Strain, Biceps brachii muscle, Injuries, Injury, Muscular system, Flexion, Sprain


Historically, anosognosia referred to under-report of striking symptoms of acquired brain injury (e.g., hemiplegia) with debilitating functional consequences and was linked with anosodiaphoria, an emotional reaction of indifference. It was later extended to include under-report of all manner of symptoms of acquired brain injury by the patient compared to clinicians, family members, or functional performance. Anosognosia is related to time since onset of brain injury but not consistently to demographic variables, lesion location (except that it is more common after unilateral right than left hemispheric injury), or specific neuropsychological test scores. This review considers all manifestations of anosognosia as a unitary phenomenon with differing clinical characteristics dictated by variability in linked cognitive impairments. It is concluded that anosognosia has three chief contributing factors: (1) procedural: measurement differences across studies in terms of symptom selection and the designation of a “gold standard” of patient symptomatology; (2) psychological: a tendency towards positive self-evaluation and the avoidance of adverse information, that also occurs in neurologically intact individuals; and (3) neuropathological: an increased likelihood of error recognition failure from disconnections that disrupt feedback between injured brain regions governing specific behaviours (symptoms) and anterior cingulate/insular cortex. Anosodiaphoria is considered as an associated symptom, resulting from the same psychological and neuropathological factors.

Concepts: Psychology, Traumatic brain injury, Symptoms, Cerebral cortex, Strain, Neuropsychology, Clinical psychology, Clinical neuropsychology


Agricultural fairs provide an opportunity for bidirectional transmission of influenza A viruses. We sought to determine influenza A virus activity among swine at fairs in the United States. As part of an ongoing active influenza A virus surveillance project, nasal swab samples were collected from exhibition swine at 40 selected Ohio agricultural fairs during 2012. Influenza A(H3N2) virus was isolated from swine at 10 of the fairs. According to a concurrent public health investigation, 7 of the 10 fairs were epidemiologically linked to confirmed human infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. Comparison of genome sequences of the subtype H3N2 isolates recovered from humans and swine from each fair revealed nucleotide identities of >99.7%, confirming zoonotic transmission between swine and humans. All influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated in this study, regardless of host species or fair, were >99.5% identical, indicating that 1 virus strain was widely circulating among exhibition swine in Ohio during 2012.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Microbiology, Virus, United States, Influenza, Strain, Swine influenza