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Concept: Standards organization


The Raven-II is a platform for collaborative research on advances in surgical robotics. Seven Universities have begun research using this platform. The Raven-II system has two three DOF spherical positioning mechanisms capable of attaching interchangeable four DOF instruments. The Raven-II software is based on open standards such as Linux and ROS to maximally facilitate software development. The mechnism is robust enough for repeated experiments and animal surgery experiments, but is not engineered to sufficient safety standards for human use. Mechanisms in place for interaction among the user community and dissemination of results include an electronic forum, an online software SVN repository, and meetings and workshops at major robotics conferences.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Science, Open Standards, Software engineering, Robotic surgery, Standards organization, System software


The World Data Centre for Microorganisms (WDCM) was established 50 years ago as the data center of the World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC)-Microbial Resource Center (MIRCEN). WDCM aims to provide integrated information services using big data technology for microbial resource centers and microbiologists all over the world. Here, we provide an overview of WDCM including all of its integrated services. Culture Collections Information Worldwide (CCINFO) provides metadata information on 708 culture collections from 72 countries and regions. Global Catalogue of Microorganism (GCM) gathers strain catalogue information and provides a data retrieval, analysis, and visualization system of microbial resources. Currently, GCM includes >368 000 strains from 103 culture collections in 43 countries and regions. Analyzer of Bioresource Citation (ABC) is a data mining tool extracting strain related publications, patents, nucleotide sequences and genome information from public data sources to form a knowledge base. Reference Strain Catalogue (RSC) maintains a database of strains listed in International Standards Organization (ISO) and other international or regional standards. RSC allocates a unique identifier to strains recommended for use in diagnosis and quality control, and hence serves as a valuable cross-platform reference. WDCM provides free access to all these services at

Concepts: Archaea, Bacteria, Microbiology, Standardization, Microorganism, Globalization, Standards organization, International Organization for Standardization


Transbronchial cryobiopsies (TBCB) have recently been introduced as a promising and safer alternative to surgical lung biopsy in the diagnostic approach to diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD). Despite a substantial and expanding body of literature, the technique has not yet been standardized and its place in the diagnostic algorithm of DPLD remains to be defined. In part, this reflects concerns over the diagnostic yield and safety of the procedure, together with the rapid spread of the technique without competency and safety standards; furthermore, there is a substantial procedural variability among centers and interventional pulmonologists. We report this expert statement proposed during the third international conference on “Transbronchial Cryobiopsy in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease” (Ravenna, October 27-28, 2016), which formulates evidence- and expert-based suggestions on the indications, contraindications, patient selection, and procedural aspects of the procedure. The following 5 domains were reviewed: (1) what is the role of TBCB in the diagnostic evaluation of DPLD: patient selection; (2) pathological considerations; (3) contraindications and safety considerations; (4) how should TBCB be performed and in what procedural environment; and (5) who should perform TBCB. Finally, the existence of white paper recommendations may also reassure local hospital credentialing committees tasked with endorsing an adoption of the technique.

Concepts: Cancer, Pulmonology, Lung, Medical terms, Pathology, Standardization, Interstitial lung disease, Standards organization


To examine national trampoline injury patterns and trends in the context of improved product safety standards and trampoline design modifications.

Concepts: Standards organization, Safety standards, Toy safety


Recognizing the critical need for standardization in strain imaging, in 2010, the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, EACVI) and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) invited technical representatives from all interested vendors to participate in a concerted effort to reduce intervendor variability of strain measurement. As an initial product of the work of the EACVI/ASE/Industry initiative to standardize deformation imaging, we prepared this technical document which is intended to provide definitions, names, abbreviations, formulas, and procedures for calculation of physical quantities derived from speckle tracking echocardiography and thus create a common standard.

Concepts: United States, Continuum mechanics, Standardization, The Europeans, German language, Standards, Standards organization, Standardization Administration of China


Given the significance of wastewater treatment and disposal for society and the economy together with the omnipresence of standards in the sector, we studied the development and prospects of the rules governing standardization in the German municipal wastewater sector. We thereby provide a detailed description of sector-specific committee-based standardization and significantly contribute to the understanding of this complex arena. We find that the German Association for Water Wastewater and Waste (DWA) has significantly improved its rules on standardization over time by aligning them closer to the generally accepted superordinate standardization principles. However, by focusing on theoretical findings of committee decision-making and committee composition, we argue that there is still scope for improvement with respect to rule reading and rule compliance. We show that the incentives at work in standardization committees are manifold, whereas the representation of the different stakeholder groups needs' remains unbalanced. Due to vested interests and potential strategic behavior of the various agents involved in standardization rule compliance does not necessarily happen naturally. To this end, we claim that the implementation of monitoring mechanisms can be a significant contribution to the institutional design of standardization and briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different schemes. Finally, we show that there is ample need for future research on the optimal design of such a scheme. Even though the analysis relates specifically to the DWA our claims apply to a wide range of standards development organizations.

Concepts: Sewage treatment, Standardization, Wastewater, Standards, Standards organization, Septic tank


Among other purposes, companies and regulatory agencies from around the world often adopt International Standard Organization (ISO) standards to determine acceptable practices, equipment and criteria for preventing occupational injuries and illnesses. ISO standards are based on a consensus among individuals who participate in the process. This discussion paper examines the scientific process for the development of several ISO standards on biomechanical factors, comparing it with processes used by other professional organizations, including scientific committees working on the development of clinical guidelines. While the ISO process has value, it also has clear limitations when it comes to developing occupational health and safety standards that should be based on scientific principles.

Concepts: Scientific method, Standardization, Occupational safety and health, Hazard prevention, Standards organization, International Organization for Standardization, Standards organizations, International standard


This paper follows up on a recent systematic review of test methods and parameters for biomechanical testing of bone plates and it is the first study that contains recommendations for standardized mechanical testing of bone plate-screw constructs for osteosynthesis. Following the testing philosophy of ASTM F382 and ISO 9585, we have developed standardized quasi-static and dynamic testing methods for straight linear and anatomically shaped plates, including locked type and conventional systems. The test specification comprises torsion and bending tests along the implant axis and therefore modifies and extends the methods proposed by ASTM F382. We present specific test setups in order to determine product-specific characteristics of the mechanical construct, consisting of the bone plate with corresponding screws (such as construct stiffness, yield strength, ultimate strength and fatigue properties) under the condition that it is rigidly fixed to “healthy bone”. We also address specific testing requirements that are important for the purpose of standardization, such as the positioning of the construct for testing or the number of screws in the diaphysis and metaphysis. Finally, we define the outcome parameters and associated failure criteria related to quasi-static and dynamic testing for comparative purposes. This paper does not intend to replace biomechanical testing of those devices under physiological loading conditions.

Concepts: Test method, Tensile strength, Standard, Elasticity, Yield, Software testing, Standards organization, International Organization for Standardization


The provision of standardized hearing aids is now considered to be a crucial part of the UK National Health Service. Yet this is only explicable through reference to the career of a woman who has, until now, been entirely forgotten. Dr Phyllis Margaret Tookey Kerridge (1901-1940) was an authoritative figure in a variety of fields: medicine, physiology, otology and the construction of scientific apparatus. The astounding breadth of her professional qualifications allowed her to combine features of these fields and, later in her career, to position herself as a specialist to shape the discipline of audiometry. Rather than framing Kerridge in the classic ‘heroic-woman’ narrative, in this article we draw out the complexities of her career by focusing on her pursuit of standardization of hearing tests. Collaboration afforded her the necessary networks to explore the intricacies of accuracy in the measurement of hearing acuity, but her influence was enhanced by her ownership of Britain’s first Western Electric (pure-tone) audiometer, which she placed in a specially designed and unique ‘silence room’. The room became the centre of Kerridge’s hearing aid clinic that, for the first time, allowed people to access free and impartial advice on hearing aid prescription. In becoming the guardian expert and advocate of the audiometer, Kerridge achieved an objectively quantified approach to hearing loss that eventually made the latter an object of technocratic intervention.

Concepts: Otology, Tinnitus, Standardization, Audiogram, Hearing, Audiology, Standards organization, Harvey Fletcher


Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a blood-derived preparation whose use has grown exponentially in orthopaedic practice. However, there remains an unclear understanding of the biological properties and effects of PRP on musculoskeletal healing. Heterogeneous processing methods, unstandardized nomenclature, and ambiguous classifications make comparison among studies challenging. A comprehensive assessment of orthopaedic clinical PRP trials is key to unraveling the biological complexity of PRP, while improving standardized communication. Toward this goal, we performed a systematic review of the PRP preparation protocols and PRP composition utilized in clinical trials for the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Effectiveness,, Standardization, Standards, Standards organization, Standardization Administration of China