Concept: Sports training
Identification of strategies to prevent spinal injury, optimize rehabilitation, and enhance performance is a priority for practitioners. Different exercises produce different effects on neuromuscular performance. Clarity of the purpose of a prescribed exercise is central to a successful outcome. Spinal exercises need to be classified according to the objective of the exercise and planned physical outcome.
Regular physical activity can not only help with weight management, but also lower cardiovascular risks, cancer rates, and chronic disease burden. Yet, only approximately 20% of Americans currently meet the physical activity guidelines recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. With the rapid development of mobile technologies, mobile apps have the potential to improve participation rates in exercise programs, particularly if they are evidence-based and are of sufficient content quality.
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ) performance following Complex Training (CT) in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout.
Exertional heat-related illness (EHRI) is comprised of several states that afflict physically active persons when exercising during conditions of high environmental heat stress. Certain forms of EHRI may become life threatening if not treated. Exertional heat stroke (EHS), characterized by a core body temperature of >40 ° C and mental status changes, is the most severe form of EHRI. EHS must be treated immediately with rapid body cooling to reduce morbidity and mortality. Many EHRI cases are preventable by following heat acclimatization guidelines, modifying sports and exercise sessions during conditions of high environmental heat stress, maintaining adequate hydration, avoiding exertion in the heat when ill, and by educating sports medicine personnel, coaches, parents, and athletes on the early recognition and prevention of EHRI. Heat exhaustion, exercise-associated collapse, exercise-associated muscle cramps, exercise-associated hyponatremia, and exertional rhabdomyolysis are also described.
Nonpharmacologic interventions, such as cognitive training or physical exercise, are effective in improving cognitive functions for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Some researchers have proposed that combining physical exercise with cognitive training may augment the benefits of cognition. However, strong evidence is lacking regarding whether a combined therapy is superior to a single type of training for older adults with MCI. Moreover, which combination approach - combining physical exercise with cognitive training sequentially or simultaneously - is more advantageous for cognitive improvement is not yet clear. This proposed study is designed to clarify these questions.
The last few decades have seen substantial growth in the populations of competitive athletes and highly active people (CAHAP). Although vigorous physical exercise is an effective way to reduce the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, CAHAP remain susceptible to inherited and acquired CV disease, and may be most at risk for adverse CV outcomes during intense physical activity. Traditionally, multidisciplinary teams comprising athletic trainers, physical therapists, primary care sports medicine physicians, and orthopedic surgeons have provided clinical care for CAHAP. However, there is increasing recognition that a care team including qualified CV specialists optimizes care delivery for CAHAP. In recognition of the increasing demand for CV specialists competent in the care of CAHAP, the American College of Cardiology has recently established a Sports and Exercise Council. An important primary objective of this council is to define the essential skills necessary to practice effective sports cardiology.
Abstract Sand surfaces can offer a higher energy cost (EC) and lower impact training stimulus compared with firmer and more traditional team sport training venues such as grass. This review aims to summarise the existing research on sand training, with a specific focus on its application as a team sports training venue. Compared with grass, significant physiological and biomechanical differences are associated with sand exercise. However, evidence also exists to suggest that training adaptations unique to sand can positively influence firm-ground performance. Furthermore, the lower impact forces experienced on sand can limit muscle damage, muscle soreness, and decrements in performance capacity relative to exercise intensity. Therefore, using a sand training surface in team sports may allow greater training adaptations to be achieved, while reducing performance decrements and injuries that may arise from heavy training. Nevertheless, further research should investigate the effect of sand surfaces over a greater range of training types and performance outcomes, to increase the application of sand training for team sports.
Numerous studies have reported the benefits of physical exercise in older adults. However, studies performed in long-term nursing home (LTNH) residents are scarce. A literature search was conducted to identify physical exercise intervention studies that were randomized and controlled and that assessed gait ability in older LTNH residents using both walking speed and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests simultaneously. Together, these tests have been defined under the term “gait ability”; they are widely used to screen for impaired physical function, and can predict accelerated functional decline, difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL), falls, and disability in older adults. Multicomponent physical exercise programs are effective in improving or maintaining gait ability in older LTNH residents. The studies included in this review show substantial heterogeneity in terms of participant characteristics (age, baseline TUG performance, and walking speed), types of evaluated intervention (multicomponent and gait retraining programs), duration of the intervention (ranging from four weeks to 12 months), duration of physical exercise sessions (ranging from 30 min to 1 h), and exercise intensity (from 40% to 60-70% RM). Due to this heterogeneity, no firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the impact of exercise programs on gait ability in LTNH residents. However, the results of this review should encourage the gathering of additional evidence to support the use of multicomponent exercise programs by older individuals.
Cancer-related fatigue is a common problem in persons with cancer, influencing health-related quality of life and causing a considerable challenge to society. Current evidence supports the beneficial effects of physical exercise in reducing fatigue, but the results across studies are not consistent, especially in terms of exercise intensity. It is also unclear whether use of behaviour change techniques can further increase exercise adherence and maintain physical activity behaviour. This study will investigate whether exercise intensity affects fatigue and health related quality of life in persons undergoing adjuvant cancer treatment. In addition, to examine effects of exercise intensity on mood disturbance, adherence to oncological treatment, adverse effects from treatment, activities of daily living after treatment completion and return to work, and behaviour change techniques effect on exercise adherence. We will also investigate whether exercise intensity influences inflammatory markers and cytokines, and whether gene expressions following training serve as mediators for the effects of exercise on fatigue and health related quality of life.
To investigate the effect of combining pain education, specific exercises and graded physical activity training (exercise) compared with pain education alone (control) on physical health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in chronic neck pain patients.