Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Sport


There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury.

Concepts: Injuries, Injury, Protection, Physical trauma, Sport, Knitting, Scout Motto


Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Limb, Sport, Stadium


No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research.

Concepts: Psychology, Philosophy, Clinical psychology, Emotion, Sport, Applied psychology, Sport psychology


Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown.

Concepts: Medicine, Sleep deprivation, Sleep disorder, Circadian rhythm, Hypnotic, Insomnia, Art, Sport


Athletes who specialize in their sport at an early age may be at risk for burnout, overuse injury, and reduced attainment of elite status. Timing of sport specialization has not been studied in elite basketball athletes.

Concepts: High school, Basketball, Sport, High School Musical, Status attainment, National Basketball Association, American Basketball Association


Separate research streams have identified synchrony and arousal as two factors that might contribute to the effects of human rituals on social cohesion and cooperation. But no research has manipulated these variables in the field to investigate their causal - and potentially interactive - effects on prosocial behaviour. Across four experimental sessions involving large samples of strangers, we manipulated the synchronous and physiologically arousing affordances of a group marching task within a sports stadium. We observed participants' subsequent movement, grouping, and cooperation via a camera hidden in the stadium’s roof. Synchrony and arousal both showed main effects, predicting larger groups, tighter clustering, and more cooperative behaviour in a free-rider dilemma. Synchrony and arousal also interacted on measures of clustering and cooperation such that synchrony only encouraged closer clustering-and encouraged greater cooperation-when paired with physiological arousal. The research helps us understand why synchrony and arousal often co-occur in rituals around the world. It also represents the first use of real-time spatial tracking as a precise and naturalistic method of simulating collective rituals.

Concepts: Scientific method, Sociology, Sexual arousal, Sport, Stadium, Baseball park, Yankee Stadium, Citi Field


To assess the relationship between sport and osteoarthritis (OA), and specifically to determine whether previous participation, in terms of level (elite or non-elite), type of sport, intensity or previous injury, was associated with OA.

Concepts: Systematic review, Meta-analysis, Sport


In our daily lives, we use faces as a major source of information about other people. Recent work has begun to highlight how one’s facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is linked to a number of behaviours (e.g. deception, aggression and financial performance in firms). fWHR has also been linked to several factors that may be beneficial for sport (e.g. achievement drive, winning mentality and aggression). Despite this, few studies have examined the relationship between fWHR and sports performance, and these have focused on Caucasian sportsmen. Here, we investigated the relationship between fWHR and baseball performance in professional Japanese baseball players. We show that fWHR is positively related with home run performance across two consecutive seasons. The findings provide the first evidence linking fWHR to baseball performance and linking fWHR to behavioural outcomes in Asian participants.

Concepts: Human behavior, Baseball, Sport, Major League Baseball, Minor league baseball, Nippon Professional Baseball, Run, Home run


It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy’s, DC’s and ACSM’s stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

Concepts: Medicine, Nutrition, United States, Sport, Dietitian


Following periods of physical activity, it is not uncommon for exercisers to increase their energy intake as a reward deemed ‘earned’. Consumers' awareness of the energy within food and expended from exercise has previously been found to be limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether habitual exercisers (50 adults and 49 children from 5 sports clubs) were able to conceptualise the energy expenditure (EE), following 1 h of their regular sports training, into a quantifiable amount of perceived energy compensation (PEC) in the form of food (chocolate) or drink (sports drink). Mean percentage accuracy for the PEC against EE matched <30% (±29%), a significant underestimation irrespective of sex or sport. Percentage accuracy failed to significantly correlate to age. These findings indicate a necessity to improve nutrition education surrounding the energy costs of exercise relative to the energy contained within foods/drinks for both adults and children.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 July 2015; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.108.

Concepts: Costs, Obesity, Physical exercise, Exercise, Cost, Sport, Cost underestimation, Cost overrun