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Concept: Spanish Empire

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Examination of three frozen bodies, a 13-y-old girl and a girl and boy aged 4 to 5 y, separately entombed near the Andean summit of Volcán Llullaillaco, Argentina, sheds new light on human sacrifice as a central part of the Imperial Inca capacocha rite, described by chroniclers writing after the Spanish conquest. The high-resolution diachronic data presented here, obtained directly from scalp hair, implies escalating coca and alcohol ingestion in the lead-up to death. These data, combined with archaeological and radiological evidence, deepen our understanding of the circumstances and context of final placement on the mountain top. We argue that the individuals were treated differently according to their age, status, and ritual role. Finally, we relate our findings to questions of consent, coercion, and/or compliance, and the controversial issues of ideological justification and strategies of social control and political legitimation pursued by the expansionist Inca state before European contact.

Concepts: Bolivia, Argentina, Andes, Ecuador, Peru, Spanish Empire, Human sacrifice, Child sacrifice

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To evaluate the performance and reach of YouTube videos performed by Spanish university students on physical examination. We analyzed performance metrics for four videos on physical examinations in Spanish, created by medical students at Miguel Hernández University (Elche, Spain) and available on YouTube: on the head and neck (7:30), the cardiovascular system (7:38), the respiratory system (13:54), and the abdomen (11:10). We used the Analytics application offered by the YouTube platform, analyzing the reach of the videos from the date of upload (17 February 2015) to 28 July 2017 (2 years, 5 months and 11 days). The total number of views and length of watch-time, plus the mean view duration for the four videos were, respectively: 164,403 views (mean 41,101; range 12,389 to 94,573), 425,888 min (mean 106,472; range 37,889 to 172,840), and 2:56 min (range 1:49 to 4:03). Mexico was the most frequent playback location, followed by Spain, Colombia, and Venezuela. Views per 100,000 population were highest in Uruguay, Ecuador, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Spanish-language tutorials are an alternative tool for teaching physical examination skills to students whose first language is not English. The videos were especially popular in Uruguay, Ecuador, and Mexico.

Concepts: United States, Spanish language, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Latin America, Spanish Empire, Spanish-speaking countries

0

The article describes the beliefs that have fueled violence by various groups against male and female “emos” in Mexico City. This was an ethnographic study from 2012 to 2015 based on 24 in-depth interviews with young students enrolled in public universities in Mexico City in 2008. The study focused primarily on emos (10), but also included young people that described themselves as punks (6), darks (5), and rockers (3). The findings suggest that bullying of emos is deeply rooted in gender beliefs, particularly hegemonic notions of masculinity. The study highlights the fact that bullying is perpetrated not only by other youth, but also occurs in the family and school settings, where the violence is taken for granted as a legitimate construct associated with the idea of discipline in school. The strategies used by these young people to resist bullying suggest reflexive attitudes towards their historical, scholastic, and family contexts. They are able to reaffirm their collective demand for the right to education and diversity in university classes, but the situation calls for policies to prevent bullying, especially in the university community.

Concepts: Male, Female, Education, Gender, Sociology, University, Youth, Spanish Empire

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Olive cultivation is of great importance in Southern Europe but olive pollen is the leading cause of allergy in many regions where it is grown. The best preventive measure for allergic patients is to avoid exposure. Thus, aerobiological monitoring networks must supply realistic pollen classes for the different types of allergic pollen. Even though those pollen classes are defined, they do not necessarily fit local data. Altogether, they should use predictive models to assess flowering intensity in advance. In this study, the Olea pollen degree of exposure classes (OPDEC) are defined based on percentiles and a predictive model is suggested for Cartagena, Spain. 24year (1993-2016) Olea pollen counts series was used to characterize the Main Pollen Season (MPS). The aerobiological samples were processed following the methodology proposed by Hirst and developed by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The aerobiological database was completed with the meteorological data supplied by AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency). MPS evolution over time, and its relation with temperature and rainfall, has been analysed. The study showed an increase in MPS duration and the amount of Olea pollen grains collected both in MPS and the peak day. The OPDEC should fit local data to improve preventive measures. Based on the 24year series, the proposed OPDEC for Cartagena are: Low (≤10grains/m3), Medium (between 10 and 50grains/m3), High (between 51 and 100grains/m3) and Very High (≥100grains/m3). Olea pollen estimations in the MPS and in the peak day were obtained by means of three Regression Methods and climatic factors. The analysis reveals that the Bagging for Regression Trees (BRT) method is a good predictive alternative and stablishes the importance for each meteorological variable.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Asthma, Allergy, United Kingdom, Spain, Pollen, Olive, Spanish Empire

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We report our experience with the use of a Spanish version of the rapid geriatric assessment of 30 patients in 2 long-term care institutions in Mexico City by a group of healthcare students without prior experience in geriatric medicine. The Spanish version of the rapid geriatric assessment is a very easy tool to administer that can provide overall good results for identifying frailty, sarcopenia, anorexia, weight loss, and cognitive impairment.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Health, Illness, Geriatrics, Mexico, Mexico City, Spanish Empire

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Racial-ethnic disparities in acute stroke care can contribute to inequality in stroke outcomes. We examined race-ethnic disparities in acute stroke performance metrics in a voluntary stroke registry among Florida and Puerto Rico Get With the Guidelines-Stroke hospitals.

Concepts: Stroke, U.S. state, Spanish language, Puerto Rico, Spanish Empire

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Research suggests individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) present with sensory and motor deficits. In Puerto Rico, comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of SZ occurs infrequently, so further investigation of sensory and motor deficits is needed. This study examined sensory and motor functions in a sample of Hispanic normal adults and individuals with SZ using specific test items from the Dean-Woodcock Sensory and Motor Battery (DWSMB).

Concepts: United States, Spanish language, Neuropsychology, Motor skill, Latin America, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Spanish Empire

0

We report on the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over Spain, focusing on the densely populated cities of Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, Sevilla and Valencia, during 17 years, from 1996 to 2012. This data series combines observations from in-situ air quality monitoring networks and the satellite-based instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY. The results in these five cities show a smooth decrease in the NO2 concentrations of ~2% per year in the period 1996-2008, due to the implementation of emissions control environmental legislation, and a more abrupt descend of ~7% per year from 2008 to 2012 as a consequence of the economic recession. In the whole Spanish territory the NO2 levels have decreased by ~22% from 1996 to 2012. Statistical analysis of several economic indicators is used to investigate the different factors driving the NO2 concentration trends over Spain during the last two decades.

Concepts: Population density, Spain, Unemployment, Madrid, Nitrogen dioxide, Autonomous communities of Spain, Spanish Empire, Spanish Civil War

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“Habsburg Jaw” is a frequently used eponymous designation for patients with mandibular prognathism, hyperplasia, or overgrowth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate portraits of the Spanish Habsburgs to determine the relative contributions of maxillary deficiency and mandibular prognathism to overall facial appearance. Representative portraits of the Spanish Habsburgs were assessed by 4 investigators for the presence of 11 anatomic features of maxillary deficiency and 7 of mandibular prognathism. Each characteristic was given a binary score of 1 if present and 0 if absent. Thus, the maximum score would be 11 for maxillary deficiency and 7 for mandibular prognathism. A semi-quantitative scale was established to determine the likelihood of each diagnosis: Maxillary deficiency: 0-4.99 (unlikely), 5-7.99 (likely), 8-11 (very likely); mandibular prognathism: 0-2.99 (unlikely), 3-5.99 (likely), 6-7 (very likely). Six of 7 Habsburg rulers were considered either likely or very likely to have maxillary deficiency, whereas 3/7 were assessed as likely and 4 unlikely to have mandibular prognathism. The results of this study suggest that the primary deformity of the “Habsburg Jaw” is maxillary deficiency rather than absolute mandibular prognathism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Inbreeding, Prognathism, Spanish Empire, House of Habsburg, Philip II of Spain, Habsburg Monarchy, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Habsburg Spain

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in his Libro del exercicio y de sus provechos (Book of exercise and profits), the Spanish Renaissance physician Christopher Mendez (1500-1553) describes extracting a bulk stone from the bladder of a child younger than 5 years in the land of colonial Mexico. This is the first description of a surgical procedure in America.

Concepts: Surgery, Europe, Spain, Mexico, Americas, Mexico City, Spanish Empire, Viceroyalty of New Spain