Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Spanish colonization of the Americas


Ecuador’s economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.

Concepts: Genetics, Spanish language, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Ecuador, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Cocoa bean, Peru, Inca Empire


When Francisco Pizarro and his small band of Spanish conquistadores landed in northern Peru in A.D. 1532 to begin their conquest of the vast Inca Empire, they initiated profound changes in the culture, language, technology, economics, and demography of western South America. They also altered anthropogenically modulated processes of shoreline change that had functioned for millennia. Beginning with the extirpation of local cultures as a result of the Spanish Conquest, and continuing through today, the intersection of demography, economy, and El Niño-driven beach-ridge formation on the Chira beach-ridge plain of Northwestern Peru has changed the nature of coastal evolution in this region. A similar event may have occurred at about 2800 calibrated y B.P. in association with increased El Niño frequency.

Concepts: Lima, Ecuador, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Peru, Cusco, Francisco Pizarro, Conquistador, History of Peru


Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies.

Concepts: Statistics, Population, Spanish language, Latin America, Sex ratio, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Panama, Pamela Anderson


The aim of this study was to verify the reliability and validity of the Spanish short version of the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ-10SV) in Peruvian patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Concepts: Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Abnormal respiration, Spanish colonization of the Americas


To report results from the Spanish subset included in the radium-223 international early access program (iEAP).

Concepts: Spanish colonization of the Americas


Prenatal mercury exposure has been related to reductions in anthropometry at birth. Levels of mercury have been reported as being relatively elevated in the Spanish population.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Fertility, Gestational age, Spanish colonization of the Americas


Learn how the Ministry of Public Health (MSP, the Spanish acronym) of Ecuador uses health technology assessment (HTA) in decision-making on the purchase of drugs that are not on the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM).

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, Illness, Pharmaceutical drug, Pharmacy, Ministry of Truth, Spanish colonization of the Americas


To translate the Iowa Infant Feeding Scale (IIFAS) into Spanish, to test its psychometric properties, and to explore item reduction for the Spanish version.

Concepts: Redox, Psychometrics, Validity, Construct validity, Reliability, Item response theory, Test, Spanish colonization of the Americas


The aim of this study was to validate the Social Appeal Scale (SAS) among the Spanish general population, exploring the underlying dimensions of the construct assessed.

Concepts: Spanish colonization of the Americas


This article analyzes the head injury of Emperor Moctezuma as one of those injuries that affected the course of history. The Emperor’s death arguably changed the fate of an entire nation and led to the destruction of the Aztec civilization. Moctezuma died in the evening hours of June 30, 1520, in his palace in the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, while a prisoner of the Spanish conquistadors. The Emperor had been speaking to his people in an effort to persuade them to cease hostilities against Hernán Cortés, his Spanish soldiers, and Indian allies. Both Spanish and Indian contemporary sources document that he sustained a severe head injury when one of his own warriors hit him with a rock thrown from a sling. However, after the Conquest of Mexico some of the information collected by Spanish friars from Indian stories, songs, and pictorial representations raised the possibility that Moctezuma died of strangulation or stabbing at the hands of the Spaniards. There is even a suggestion of suicide. This issue remains unresolved and emotionally charged. The historical and clinical analysis of the events surrounding Moctezuma’s death indicates that the Emperor most likely died as a consequence of head injury. The author has attempted to present a neutral analysis but agrees with Benjamin Keen that neutrality may be unattainable, no matter how remote the subject of historical inquiry is from the present.

Concepts: Injuries, Mexico, Mexico City, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Aztec, Hernán Cortés, Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Moctezuma II