Concept: Spanish colonization of the Americas
Ecuador’s economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Published almost 7 years ago
When Francisco Pizarro and his small band of Spanish conquistadores landed in northern Peru in A.D. 1532 to begin their conquest of the vast Inca Empire, they initiated profound changes in the culture, language, technology, economics, and demography of western South America. They also altered anthropogenically modulated processes of shoreline change that had functioned for millennia. Beginning with the extirpation of local cultures as a result of the Spanish Conquest, and continuing through today, the intersection of demography, economy, and El Niño-driven beach-ridge formation on the Chira beach-ridge plain of Northwestern Peru has changed the nature of coastal evolution in this region. A similar event may have occurred at about 2800 calibrated y B.P. in association with increased El Niño frequency.
Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies.
Reliability and Validity of the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire - Spanish Short Version (FOSQ-10SV) in Peruvian Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea
- Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
- Published almost 3 years ago
The aim of this study was to verify the reliability and validity of the Spanish short version of the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ-10SV) in Peruvian patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
To report results from the Spanish subset included in the radium-223 international early access program (iEAP).
Prenatal mercury exposure has been related to reductions in anthropometry at birth. Levels of mercury have been reported as being relatively elevated in the Spanish population.
[Health technology assessment in Ecuador’s ministry of public health as a tool for drug purchasing from 2012 to 2015]
- Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health
- Published over 3 years ago
Learn how the Ministry of Public Health (MSP, the Spanish acronym) of Ecuador uses health technology assessment (HTA) in decision-making on the purchase of drugs that are not on the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM).
- Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN / NAACOG
- Published over 4 years ago
To translate the Iowa Infant Feeding Scale (IIFAS) into Spanish, to test its psychometric properties, and to explore item reduction for the Spanish version.
The aim of this study was to validate the Social Appeal Scale (SAS) among the Spanish general population, exploring the underlying dimensions of the construct assessed.
This article analyzes the head injury of Emperor Moctezuma as one of those injuries that affected the course of history. The Emperor’s death arguably changed the fate of an entire nation and led to the destruction of the Aztec civilization. Moctezuma died in the evening hours of June 30, 1520, in his palace in the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, while a prisoner of the Spanish conquistadors. The Emperor had been speaking to his people in an effort to persuade them to cease hostilities against Hernán Cortés, his Spanish soldiers, and Indian allies. Both Spanish and Indian contemporary sources document that he sustained a severe head injury when one of his own warriors hit him with a rock thrown from a sling. However, after the Conquest of Mexico some of the information collected by Spanish friars from Indian stories, songs, and pictorial representations raised the possibility that Moctezuma died of strangulation or stabbing at the hands of the Spaniards. There is even a suggestion of suicide. This issue remains unresolved and emotionally charged. The historical and clinical analysis of the events surrounding Moctezuma’s death indicates that the Emperor most likely died as a consequence of head injury. The author has attempted to present a neutral analysis but agrees with Benjamin Keen that neutrality may be unattainable, no matter how remote the subject of historical inquiry is from the present.