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Concept: Southwest China


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ∑18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 μg•g-1 to 14.20 μg•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 μg•g-1. The highest Σ18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of Σ18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4-6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ∑18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10-6, 5.00×10-6, 3.08×10-6, 6.02×10-6 for children and 5.92×10-6, 4.83×10-6, 2.97×10-6, 5.81×10-6 for adults, respectively.

Concepts: Arithmetic mean, Regression analysis, Aromaticity, Principal component analysis, Yunnan, Naphthalene, Southwest China, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon


Trombiculid mites (or chigger mites) are a large group of arthropods, and some of these species are vectors of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is situated in the southwest of China, and its complicated topography, special altitude gradients, and high biodiversity have aroused the interest of many scientists to study the fauna and species diversity of plants and animals. To replenish our former faunal study, this paper listed all the scientific names of trombiculid mites in Yunnan Province, together with their hosts and collection sites (geographical distribution). A total of 120,138 individuals of trombiculid mites were collected from the body surface of 13,760 small mammal hosts (89.06 % of them are rodents) in 29 collection sites (counties) of Yunnan Province from 2001 to 2013. The 120,138 mites were identified as comprising 2 families (Trombiculidae and Leeuwenhoekiidae), 26 genera, and 274 species. The genus Leptotrombidium had the most abundant species (109 species) of 26 genera. Of the six main vectors of scrub typhus in China, five of them were found in Yunnan. Of the 274 chigger mite species, 23 were determined as the newly recorded species (new records), which were found in Yunnan Province for the first time. The identified 274 species of trombiculid mites in the present paper are much more than those from other provinces in China and even largely exceeded the species of trombiculid mites recorded from some other regions and countries in the world. Based on the formula of Chao 1, the total number of chigger mite species in Yunnan was approximately estimated to be 346 species, and about 72 species might have been missed in our sampling process.

Concepts: Scrub typhus, Yunnan, Biodiversity, Harvest mite, Southwest China, Mammal, Kunming, Orientia tsutsugamushi


Plague, a Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease with tremendous transmission capacity. However, the mechanism of how the pathogen stays in a reservoir, circulates and then re-emerges is an enigma.

Concepts: Southwest China, Yunnan, Epidemiology, Yersinia pestis


Carbonatite-associated rare-earth-element (REE) deposits are the most significant source of the world’s REEs; however, their genesis remains unclear. Here, we present new Sr-Nd-Pb and C-O isotopic data for Cenozoic carbonatite-hosted giant REE deposits in southwest China. These REE deposits are located along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton that experienced Proterozoic lithospheric accretion, and controlled by Cenozoic strike-slip faults related to Indo-Asian continental collision. The Cenozoic carbonatites were emplaced as stocks or dykes with associated syenites, and tend to be extremely enriched in Ba, Sr, and REEs and have high (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios (>0.7055). These carbonatites were likely formed by melting of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), which had been previously metasomatized by high-flux REE- and CO2-rich fluids derived from subducted marine sediments. The fertility of these carbonatites depends on the release of REEs from recycled marine sediments and on the intensity of metasomatic REE refertilization of the SCLM. We suggest that cratonic edges, particularly along ancient convergent margins, possess the optimal configuration for generating giant REE deposits; therefore, areas of metamorphic basement bounded or cut by translithospheric faults along cratonic edges have a high potential for such deposits.

Concepts: Southwest China, Sediment, Recycling, Earth, Metasomatism, Convergent boundary, Plate tectonics, Lithosphere


Variations in HPV LCR/E6/E7 have been shown to be associated with the viral persistence and cervical cancer development. So far, there are few reports about the polymorphisms of the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7 sequences in Southwest China. This study aims to characterize the gene polymorphisms of the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7 sequences in women of Southwest China, and assess the effects of variations on the immune recognition of viral E6 and E7 antigens.

Concepts: Southwest China, HPV vaccine, HIV, Cervical cancer, Cancer, Yunnan, Human papillomavirus, Immune system


To investigate the epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics of salivary gland tumors in southwest China in order to provide data for clinical diagnosis and other similar research.

Concepts: Saliva, Exocrine system, Southwest China, Salivary gland, Yunnan, Glands


Camptocormia is becoming increasingly recognized as a prominent phenomenon in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Concepts: Mao Zedong, James Parkinson, Southwest China, Yunnan, Camptocormia, Parkinson's disease


Upon publication of the original article (1) it was highlighted by the authors that a grant awarded to support the research work of the study was missed in the acknowledgements. It should also be acknowledged that the grant titled “Genotyping and Molecular Epidemiological Characteristic of Bacillus anthracis in Guizhou Province” awarded by the Program of Natural Science Foundation of Guizhou Province (Grant No. Qian Ke He J Word [2015] 2084)also contributed to the resources for this research. This has since been formally noted in this correction article.

Concepts: Guizhou, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacilli, Yunnan, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus, Science, Southwest China


To conduct a one-year pathogen surveillance of acute diarrheal disease based on outpatient clinics in township hospitals in rural Hongta District of Yunnan Province, China.

Concepts: People's Republic of China, Guizhou, Southwest China, Hongta District, Yuxi, Diarrhea, Kunming, Yunnan


This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968-1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981-2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007-2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981-2007 as the reference period were -81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968-1980, and -117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007-2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought problem in the karst region and for the sustainable development of the drainage basin.

Concepts: Southwest China, Climate, Reservoir, Snowmelt, Geomorphology, Drainage basin, Water, Hydrology