Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Software testing


New disciplined techniques are being deployed for testing potentially value-producing ideas faster, less expensively, and more reliably. Vapor tests, fake front ends, fake back ends, and mini-pilots can all help health care organizations meet patients' needs.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Health, Illness, Software testing


The dorsal aspect of the hallux is often cited as the anatomic location of choice for vibration testing in the feet of diabetic patients. To validate this preference, vibration tests were performed and compared at the hallux and 5th metatarsal head in diabetic patients with established neuropathy.

Concepts: Foot, Choice, Vibration, Software testing


Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurrence rates remain high and it is now thought that strength deficits may be an important factor. Strengthening exercise should be performed with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of hamstring injuries so at this stage we cannot advise their use. Various tests have been proposed as predictors of hamstring injury and the use of the Nordboard is an interesting addition to the testing process. Prevention of these injuries is the ultimate aim and there is increasing evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises are effective in reducing the incidence.

Concepts: Muscle, Physical exercise, Exercise, Software testing, Stretching


We demonstrate a personalized food allergen testing platform, termed iTube, running on a cellphone that images and automatically analyses colorimetric assays performed in test tubes toward sensitive and specific detection of allergens in food samples. This cost-effective and compact iTube attachment, weighing approximately 40 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where the test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are vertically illuminated by two separate light-emitting-diodes. The illumination light is absorbed by the allergen assay, which is activated within the tubes, causing an intensity change in the acquired images by the cellphone camera. These transmission images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within 1 s using a smart application running on the same cellphone for detection and quantification of allergen contamination in food products. We evaluated the performance of this cellphone-based iTube platform using different types of commercially available cookies, where the existence of peanuts was accurately quantified after a sample preparation and incubation time of ∼20 min per test. This automated and cost-effective personalized food allergen testing tool running on cellphones can also permit uploading of test results to secure servers to create personal and/or public spatio-temporal allergen maps, which can be useful for public health in various settings.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Asthma, Light, Ontology, Food allergy, Mobile phone, Software testing, Web browser


Despite immense progress in ART scale-up, many people still lack access to basic standards of care, with our ability to meet UNITAIDS 90-90-90 treatment targets for HIV/AIDS dependent on dramatic improvements in diagnostics. WHO recommends routine monitoring of ART effectiveness using viral load (VL) testing at 6 months and every 12 months, to monitor treatment adherence and minimise failure and will publish its VL toolkit later this year. However, the cost and complexity of VL is preventing scale-up beyond developed countries and there is a lack of awareness among clinicians as to the long-term patient benefits and its role in prolonging the longevity of treatment programmes. With developments in this diagnostic field rapidly evolving - including the recent improvements for accurately using Dried Blood Spot (DBS) and the imminent appearance to the market of point-of-care (POC) technologies offering decentralised diagnosis - we describe current barriers to VL testing in resource-limited settings. Effective scale-up can be achieved through health- and laboratory-system strengthening and test price reductions, as well as tackling multiple programmatic and funding challenges.

Concepts: Viral load, Diagnosis, Effectiveness, Developed country, Software testing, Art, Human Development Index, Dried blood spot testing


Dual task paradigm states that the introduction of a second task during a cognitive or motor performance results in a decreased performance in either task. Treadmill walk, often used in clinical applications of dual task testing, has never been compared to overground walk, to ascertain its susceptibility to interference from a second task. We compared the effects of overground and treadmill gait on dual task performance.

Concepts: Activity, Task, Introduction, Walking, Software testing, Debut albums, Steve Morse


As medical software is getting larger-sized, complex, and connected with other devices, finding faults in integrated software modules gets more difficult and time consuming. Existing integration testing typically takes a black-box approach, which treats the target software as a black box and selects test cases without considering internal behavior of each software module. Though it could be cost-effective, this black-box approach cannot thoroughly test interaction behavior among integrated modules and might leave critical faults undetected, which should not happen in safety-critical systems such as medical software. This work anticipates that information on internal behavior is necessary even for integration testing to define thorough test cases for critical software and proposes a new integration testing method by reusing test cases used for unit testing. The goal is to provide a cost-effective method to detect subtle interaction faults at the integration testing phase by reusing the knowledge obtained from unit testing phase. The suggested approach notes that the test cases for the unit testing include knowledge on internal behavior of each unit and extracts test cases for the integration testing from the test cases for the unit testing for a given test criteria. The extracted representative test cases are connected with functions under test using the state domain and a single test sequence to cover the test cases is produced. By means of reusing unit test cases, the tester has effective test cases to examine diverse execution paths and find interaction faults without analyzing complex modules. The produced test sequence can have test coverage as high as the unit testing coverage and its length is close to the length of optimal test sequences.

Concepts: Test method, Software testing, Unit testing, Integration testing


In this study, the adsorption/desorption characteristics of anthocyanins on five Amberlite resins (FPX-66, XAD-7HP, XAD-16N, XAD-1180 and XAD-761) were evaluated. FPX-66 and XAD-16N showed the highest adsorption and desorption capacities, and ratios for anthocyanins from muscadine pomace extract, while XAD-7HP had the lowest adsorption and desorption capacities, and ratios. Based on static adsorption and desorption tests three resins (FPX-66, XAD-16N and XAD-1180) were selected for adsorption kinetics and isotherms. The adsorption mechanism was better explained by the pseudo-first order kinetics for FPX-66 and XAD-16N; however, for XAD-1180 pseudo-second order kinetics was the most suitable model. The experimental data fitted best to Langmuir isotherm model for all the three resins. Dynamic testing was done on a column packed with FPX-66 resin and breakthrough volume was reached at 17 bed volumes of muscadine pomace water extract during adsorption. Three bed volumes of aqueous ethanol (70%) resulted in complete desorption. Resin adsorption resulted in a concentrated pomace extract that contained 13% (w/w) anthocyanins with no detectable sugars.

Concepts: Adsorption, Software testing, Grape, Vitis, Surface chemistry, Langmuir equation, Muscadine, Petunidin


Anaerobic power is a significant predictor of acceleration and top speed in team sport athletes. Historically, these findings have been applied to ice hockey, although recent research has brought their validity for this sport into question. As ice hockey emphasizes the ability to repeatedly produce power, single bout anaerobic power tests should be examined to determine their ability to predict on-ice performance. We tested whether conventional off-ice anaerobic power tests could predict on-ice acceleration, top speed, and repeated shift performance. Forty-five hockey players, aged 18-24, completed anthropometric, off-ice, and on-ice tests. Anthropometric and off-ice testing included height, weight, body composition, vertical jump, and Wingate tests. On-ice testing consisted of acceleration, top speed, and repeated shift fatigue tests. Vertical jump (VJ) (r = -0.42; r = -0.58), Wingate relative peak power (WRPP) (r = -0.32; r = -0.43), and relative mean power (WRMP) (r = -0.34; r = -0.48) were significantly correlated (p<0.05) to on-ice acceleration and top speed, respectively. Conversely, none of the off-ice tests correlated with on-ice repeated shift performance, as measured by first gate, second gate, or total course fatigue; VJ (r = 0.06; r = 0.13; r = 0.09), WRPP (r = 0.06; r = 0.14; r = 0.10), or WRMP (r = -0.10; r = -0.01; r = -0.01). While conventional off-ice anaerobic power tests predict single bout on-ice acceleration and top speed, they neither predict the repeated shift ability of the player, nor are good markers for performance in ice hockey.

Concepts: Velocity, Software testing, Ice hockey, Anaerobic exercise, Vertical jump, Hockey


Several studies from resource-limited settings have demonstrated that clinical and immunologic criteria are poor predictors of virologic failure, confirming the need for viral load monitoring or at least an algorithm to target viral load testing. We used data from an electronic patient management system to develop an algorithm to identify patients at risk of viral failure using a combination of accessible and inexpensive markers.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Protease inhibitor, Viral load, Medicine, Patient, Software testing