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Concept: Smoking cessation

122

Sex differences in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality exist, with women experiencing more severe health consequences and greater difficulty with smoking cessation than men. One factor that likely contributes to these sex differences is menstrual cycle phase and associated neural and cognitive changes associated with ovarian hormone fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. Previously, we showed that naturally cycling, cigarette-dependent women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle showed greater reward-related neural activity and greater craving during smoking cue exposure. To better understand our results and the observed sex differences in smoking behavior and relapse, we explored potential menstrual cycle phase differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in naturally cycling, cigarette-dependent women. Understanding how menstrual cycle phase affects neural processes, cognition, and behavior is a critical step in developing more efficacious treatments and in selecting the best treatment option based on a patient’s needs.

Concepts: Psychology, Menopause, Smoking cessation, Cognition, Menstrual cycle, Puberty, Follicular phase

96

Alcohol consumption during attempts at smoking cessation can provoke relapse and so smokers are often advised to restrict their alcohol consumption during this time. This study assessed at a population-level whether smokers having recently initiated an attempt to stop smoking are more likely than other smokers to report i) lower alcohol consumption and ii) trying to reduce their alcohol consumption.

Concepts: Alcohol, Smoking, Nicotine, Smoking cessation

92

E-cigarettes have grown popular. The most common pattern is dual use with conventional cigarettes. Dual use has raised concerns that it might delay quitting of cigarette smoking. This study examined the relationship between long-term use of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation in a 2-year period.

Concepts: Smoking, Tobacco, Cigarette, Nicotine, Smoking cessation, Cigar, Electronic cigarette, Cigarettes

88

To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological relative risk measures.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Atherosclerosis, Medical statistics, Actuarial science, Relative risk, Smoking cessation, Biostatistics

87

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, with more persons dying from nicotine addiction than any other preventable cause of death. Even though smoking cessation incurs multiple health benefits, the abstinence rate remains low with current medications. Here we show that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in the hippocampus is activated following chronic nicotine use, an effect that is rapidly reversed by nicotine withdrawal. Increasing pAMPK levels and, consequently, downstream AMPK signaling pharmacologically attenuate anxiety-like behavior following nicotine withdrawal. We show that metformin, a known AMPK activator in the periphery, reduces withdrawal symptoms through a mechanism dependent on the presence of the AMPKα subunits within the hippocampus. This study provides evidence of a direct effect of AMPK modulation on nicotine withdrawal symptoms and suggests central AMPK activation as a therapeutic target for smoking cessation.

Concepts: Medicine, Smoking, Tobacco, Cigarette, Nicotine, Smoking cessation, Addiction, Withdrawal

70

Quitting cigarette smoking benefits smokers at any age (1). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration-approved medications increase quit rates (1-3). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 objectives of increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who attempt to quit smoking cigarettes to ≥80.0% (TU-4.1), and increasing recent smoking cessation success to ≥8.0% (TU-5.1),* CDC assessed national estimates of cessation behaviors among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). During 2015, 68.0% of adult smokers wanted to stop smoking, 55.4% made a past-year quit attempt, 7.4% recently quit smoking, 57.2% had been advised by a health professional to quit, and 31.2% used cessation counseling and/or medication when trying to quit. During 2000-2015, increases occurred in the proportion of smokers who reported a past-year quit attempt, recently quit smoking, were advised to quit by a health professional, and used cessation counseling and/or medication (p<0.05). Throughout this period, fewer than one third of persons used evidence-based cessation methods when trying to quit smoking. As of 2015, 59.1% of adults who had ever smoked had quit. To further increase cessation, health care providers can consistently identify smokers, advise them to quit, and offer them cessation treatments (2-4). In addition, health insurers can increase cessation by covering and promoting evidence-based cessation treatments and removing barriers to treatment access (2,4-6).

Concepts: Health care, Lung cancer, Smoking, Tobacco, Cigarette, Nicotine, Smoking cessation

62

Smoking cessation was examined among a subset of current smokers who were high-risk participants in the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) pilot trial of low-dose CT screening.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Tobacco smoking, Passive smoking, Smoking cessation, Medical test

58

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Smoking, Tobacco, Cigarette, Nicotine, Smoking cessation, Electronic cigarette, Nicotine gum

55

We evaluated a novel Twitter-delivered intervention for smoking cessation, Tweet2Quit, which sends daily, automated communications to small, private, self-help groups to encourage high-quality, online, peer-to-peer discussions.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Smoking cessation

52

Smoking is more prevalent among people with depression. Depression may make cessation more difficult and cessation may affect depression symptoms.

Concepts: Smoking cessation