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Concept: Skeletal disorders


BACKGROUND: Foot deformities and related problems of the forefoot are very common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The laxity of the medial cuneometatarsal joint and its synovitis are important factors in the development of forefoot deformity. The impaired joint causes the first metatarsal bone to become unstable in the frontal and sagittal planes. In this retrospective study we evaluated data of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who underwent Lapidus procedure. We evaluated the role of the instability in a group of patients, focusing mainly on the clinical symptoms and X-ray signs of the instability. METHODS: The study group included 125 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The indications of the Lapidus procedure were a hallux valgus deformity greater than 15 degrees and varus deformity of the first metatarsal bone with the intermetatarsal angle greater than 15 degrees on anterio-posterior weight-bearing X-ray. RESULTS: Data of 143 Lapidus procedures of 125 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, who underwent surgery between 2004 and 2010 was evaluated. Signs and symptoms of the first metatarsal bone instability was found in 92 feet (64.3 %) in our group. The AOFAS score was 48.6 before and 87.6 six months after the foot reconstruction. Nonunion of the medial cuneometatarsal joint arthrodesis on X-rays occurred in seven feet (4.9 %). CONCLUSION: The Lapidus procedure provides the possibility to correct the first metatarsal bone varus position and its instability, as well as providing the possibility to achieve a painless foot for walking. We recommend using the procedure as a preventive surgery in poorly symptomatic patients with rheumatoid arthritis in case of the first metatarsal bone hypermobility.

Concepts: Foot, Bunion, Varus deformity, Rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis, Skeletal disorders, Valgus deformity, Tarsus


The purpose of this study is to review our operative experience of congenital kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis undergoing either pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) or posterior vertebral column resection (pVCR) according to certain criteria we have established.

Concepts: Vertebral column, Scoliosis, According to Jim, Vertebra, Skeletal disorders, Lordosis, Kyphosis, Kyphoscoliosis


To evaluate the results of corrective varus osteotomy in the treatment of arthritic knees with valgus deformity.

Concepts: Varus deformity, Arthritis, Skeletal disorders, Valgus deformity, Cubitus valgus


To the authors' knowledge, few reports have been published in the English literature of using total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of hereditary multiple exostoses. This article describes 2 patients with hereditary multiple exostoses, 1 treated with total hip arthroplasty and 1 treated with total knee arthroplasty. Bony deformities make arthroplasty uniquely challenging in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. An expanded metaphysis of the proximal femur, coxa valga deformity, and the presence of hardware from previous reconstructive surgeries can make total hip arthroplasty technically difficult. Substantial bony deformity of the distal femur, valgus deformity of the knee, and sizing issues that necessitate custom implants can make total knee arthroplasty difficult. The most common bony deformities in hereditary multiple exostoses are short stature, limb-length discrepancy, valgus deformity at the knee and ankle, and asymmetry of the pectoral and pelvic girdles. Most reported surgical treatments for patients with hereditary multiple exostoses focus on the pediatric population or the management of malignant transformation of exostoses. Studies that specifically address the conditions associated with knee deformities focus on extra-articular deformity correction rather than arthroplasty.When arthroplasty is necessary in this patient population, an understanding of the commonly occurring deformities can help with preoperative planning and surgical management. All painful lesions must be evaluated for malignant transformation. Bone scans can be useful during workup. All specimens should be sent for pathologic evaluation. Such patients are challenging because of the distorted hip anatomy and valgus knee deformity. The current 2 cases illustrate specific challenges that can be anticipated and underscore key principles for arthroplasty in the management of hereditary multiple exostoses.

Concepts: Varus deformity, Femur, Implants, Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Skeletal disorders, Valgus deformity


We describe a case of lamellar ichthyosis with bilateral genu valgum. The association of genu valgum with congenital ichthyosis is rare. Our patient, a 22-year-old girl, had lamellar ichthyosis and was born with a collodion membrane. She developed progressive valgus deformity of the knees of 5 years duration associated with difficulty in walking. On evaluation, she had generalised scaly skin lesions along with bilateral genu valgum and biochemical evidence of vitamin D deficiency. Skin serves as an important site for vitamin D synthesis and thus skeletal deformities secondary to vitamin D deficiency may occur in cases of congenital ichthyosis, causing a diagnostic dilemma due to the unusual association. This case serves as a reminder that clinicians need to be aware of such an association in order to prevent, appropriately diagnose and adequately treat the rare case of congenital ichthyosis with rickets and osteomalacia.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Varus deformity, Rickets, Skeletal disorders, Genu valgum, Valgus deformity, Genu varum, Osteomalacia


Scarf osteotomy of the first metatarsal bone to correct hallux valgus deformity has benefited from a number of improvements over the past two decades, most notably regarding the internal fixation method. Internal fixation was deemed mandatory by the authors of early case-series studies. Maestro suggested eliminating the proximal screw by locking the two fragments distally: a notch was created via a medial extension of the cephalic part of the osteotomy, the plantar fragment was displaced laterally, and the distal end of the proximal fragment was then fit into the notch (secondary cut and interlocking joint technique). To further develop this concept and to increase the potential range of translation, we developed an original technique involving distal locking without shortening and proximal stabilisation by impaction of a cortical-cancellous bone graft taken from the medial overhanging edge of the proximal fragment. This original technical variant has not been reported previously.

Concepts: Foot, Bunion, Varus deformity, Orthopedic surgery, Bones of the lower limb, Skeletal disorders, Valgus deformity, Tarsus


To evaluate previous research to determine if exercise can improve pre-existing hyperkyphosis by decreasing the angle of thoracic kyphosis in adults aged 45 years and older.

Concepts: Improve, Skeletal disorders, Kyphosis, Hyperkyphosis


Patients with multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) frequently present with a genu valgum deformity. Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis, such as hemiepiphyseal stapling, is a relatively safe surgical method to correct angular deformities in skeletally immature patients, but its outcomes for genu valgum deformity in MHE patients have not been extensively reported. We investigated the outcomes of hemiepiphyseal stapling in MHE patients (MHE group) and compared those with the outcomes in patients with idiopathic deformities (idiopathic group) after adjusting for potential bias.

Concepts: Varus deformity, Sociology, Skeletal disorders, Genu valgum, Genu varum, Deformity, Hereditary multiple exostoses, Exostosis


Chondroblastoma is a rare primary bone tumor of young people that typically arises in the ends of the long bones. Radiologic investigations show a small, circumscribed, lytic lesion. The tumor is characterized histologically by the proliferation of chondroblasts along with areas of mature cartilage, giant cells, and occasionally, secondary aneurysmal bone cyst formation. Chondroblastoma, however, may also present with atypical features, such as prominent hemosiderin deposition, numerous giant cells, or the presence of a large aneurysmal bone cyst component. Malignant entities such as clear cell chondrosarcoma and chondroblastic osteosarcoma must also be considered. Recently, immunohistochemical stains such as DOG1 and SOX9 have been described in chondroblastoma, and K36M mutations in either the H3F3A or H3F3B genes have also been identified. While generally regarded as a benign entity, chondroblastoma manifests an intermediate type of behavior, given its ability to recur locally, and rarely, metastasize.

Concepts: DNA, Bone, Gene, Cancer, Anatomical pathology, Cartilage, Immunohistochemistry, Skeletal disorders


Although direct repair (DR) with screw fixation at the pars defect is a common surgical treatment for lumbar spondylolysis, it is unknown whether DR leads to better outcomes for young patients with spondylolysis than traditional non-surgical treatment.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Lumbar vertebrae,, Spondylolisthesis, Skeletal disorders, Conservatism, Spondylolysis, Pars interarticularis