Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Shutter speed


To investigate whether high levels of screen time exposure are associated with self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity in higher education students.

Concepts: Cross-sectional study, Education, Higher education, Shutter speed


Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are well-established techniques for imaging surfaces with nanometer resolution. Here we demonstrate a complementary and powerful approach based on tabletop extreme-ultraviolet ptychography that enables quantitative full field imaging with higher contrast than other techniques, and with compositional and topographical information. Using a high numerical aperture reflection-mode microscope illuminated by a tabletop 30nm high harmonic source, we retrieve high quality, high contrast, full field images with 40nm by 80nm lateral resolution (≈1.3λ), with a total exposure time of less than 1min. Finally, quantitative phase information enables surface profilometry with ultra-high, 6Å axial resolution. In the future, this work will enable dynamic imaging of functioning nanosystems with unprecedented combined spatial (<10nm) and temporal (<10fs) resolution, in thick opaque samples, with elemental, chemical and magnetic sensitivity.

Concepts: Electron, Electron microscope, Optics, Wavelength, Scanning electron microscope, Shutter speed, Aperture, F-number


Serial crystallography, in which single-shot diffraction images are collected, has great potential for protein microcrystallography. Although serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) has been successfully demonstrated, limited beam time prevents its routine use. Inspired by SFX, serial synchrotron crystallography (SSX) has been investigated at synchrotron macromolecular crystallography beamlines. Unlike SFX, the longer exposure time of milliseconds to seconds commonly used in SSX causes radiation damage. However, in SSX, crystals can be rotated during the exposure, which can achieve efficient coverage of the reciprocal space. In this study, mercury single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (Hg-SAD) phasing of the luciferin regenerating enzyme (LRE) was performed using serial synchrotron rotation crystallography. The advantages of rotation and influence of dose on the data collected were evaluated. The results showed that sample rotation was effective for accurate data collection, and the optimum helical rotation step depended on multiple factors such as multiplicity and partiality of reflections, exposure time per rotation angle and the contribution from background scattering. For the LRE microcrystals, 0.25° was the best rotation step for the achievable resolution limit, whereas a rotation step larger than or equal to 1° was favorable for Hg-SAD phasing. Although an accumulated dose beyond 1.1 MGy caused specific damage at the Hg site, increases in resolution and anomalous signal were observed up to 3.4 MGy because of a higher signal-to-noise ratio.

Concepts: Diffraction, Crystallography, Powder diffraction, Photography, Shutter speed, Reciprocal lattice, F-number, Miller index


This study investigated the effect of Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) exposure induced stress on microbial inactivation patterns and the regulation of genes involved in the microbial stress response in conjunction with key processing parameters of exposure time and post treatment storage time.

Concepts: Bacteria, Evolution, Earth, Antibiotic resistance, Escherichia coli, Gas, Shutter speed, Ionosphere


Inspired by the water-enhanced mechanical gradient character of the squid beak, we herein report a nanocomposite that mimics both the architecture and properties of this interesting natural material. Similar to the squid beak, we have developed nanocomposites where the degree of cross-linking is controlled along the length of the film. In this study, we utilized tunicate cellulose nanocrystals as the nanofiller that are functionalized with allyl moieties. Using photoinduced thiol-ene chemistry, we have been able to cross-link the CNC nanofiller. In the dry state where strong CNC interactions can occur, only a small mechanical contrast is observed between the cross-linked and uncross-linked samples. However, when the films are exposed to water, which “switches off” the noncovalent CNC interactions, a significant mechanical contrast is observed between the same films. For example, at 20 wt % CNC (in the dry film), an increase in wet modulus from 60 to 300 MPa (∼500% increase) is observed after photoirradiation. Furthermore, we show that the wet modulus can be controlled by altering the UV exposure time which allows access to mechanical gradient films.

Concepts: Polymer chemistry, Nanomaterials, Film, Cross-link, Shutter speed, Nanocomposite


This study investigated exposure time, running and skill-related performance in two international u20 rugby union teams during an intensified tournament: the 2015 Junior World Rugby Championship.

Concepts: Shutter speed


We report a simple single-molecule fluorescence imaging method that increases the temporal resolution of any type of array detector by >5-fold with full field-of-view. We spread single-molecule spots to adjacent pixels by rotating a mirror in the detection path during the exposure time of a single frame, which encodes temporal information into the spatial domain. Our approach allowed us to monitor fast blinking of an organic dye, the dissociation kinetics of very short DNA and conformational changes of biomolecules with much improved temporal resolution than the conventional method. Our technique is useful when a large field-of-view is required, for example, in the case of weakly interacting biomolecules or cellular imaging.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Molecular biology, Optics, Light, Photography, Shutter speed


A common issue in descriptive injury epidemiology is that in order to calculate injury rates that account for the time spent in an activity, both injury cases and exposure time of specific activities need to be collected. In reality, few national surveys have this capacity. To address this issue, we combined statistics from two different national complex surveys as inputs for the numerator and denominator to estimate injury rate, accounting for the time spent in specific activities and included a procedure to estimate variance using the combined surveys.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Statistics, Mathematics, Number, Biostatistics, Photography, Shutter speed, Conflict of laws


The epidemiology of football-related concussions has been extensively examined. However, although football players experience more at-risk exposure time during practices than competitions, there is a dearth of literature examining the nature of the activities or equipment worn during practice. In particular, varying levels of equipment worn during practices may place players at varying levels of risk for concussion.

Concepts: Premier League, The Football League, Concussion, Shutter speed, La Liga, Players at the Game of People, Oldham Athletic A.F.C.


We explore a puzzle of visual object categorization: Under normal viewing conditions, you spot something as a dog fastest, but at a glance, you spot it faster as an animal. During speeded category verification, a classic basic-level advantage is commonly observed (Rosch, Mervis, Gray, Johnson, & Boyes-Braem, 1976), with categorization as a dog faster than as an animal (superordinate) or Golden Retriever (subordinate). A different story emerges during ultra-rapid categorization with limited exposure duration (<30 ms), with superordinate categorization faster than basic or subordinate categorization (Thorpe, Fize, & Marlot, 1996). These two widely cited findings paint contrary theoretical pictures about the time course of categorization, yet no previous study has investigated them together. We systematically examined two experimental factors that could explain the qualitative difference in categorization across the two paradigms: exposure duration and category trial context. Mapping out the time course of object categorization by manipulating exposure duration and the timing of a post-stimulus mask revealed that brief exposure durations favor superordinate-level categorization, but with more time a basic-level advantage emerges. However, these advantages were modulated by category trial context. With randomized target categories, the superordinate advantage was eliminated; and with only four repetitions of superordinate categorization within an otherwise randomized context, the basic-level advantage was eliminated. Contrary to theoretical accounts that dictate a fixed priority for certain levels of abstraction in visual processing and access to semantic knowledge, the dynamics of object categorization are flexible, depending jointly on the level of abstraction, time for perceptual encoding, and category context. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Scientific method, Ontology, Concept, Categorization, Category theory, Abstraction, Labrador Retriever, Shutter speed