Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Section


Deciding when to return to sport after injury is complex and multifactorial-an exercise in risk management. Return to sport decisions are made every day by clinicians, athletes and coaches, ideally in a collaborative way. The purpose of this consensus statement was to present and synthesise current evidence to make recommendations for return to sport decision-making, clinical practice and future research directions related to returning athletes to sport. A half day meeting was held in Bern, Switzerland, after the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy. 17 expert clinicians participated. 4 main sections were initially agreed upon, then participants elected to join 1 of the 4 groups-each group focused on 1 section of the consensus statement. Participants in each group discussed and summarised the key issues for their section before the 17-member group met again for discussion to reach consensus on the content of the 4 sections. Return to sport is not a decision taken in isolation at the end of the recovery and rehabilitation process. Instead, return to sport should be viewed as a continuum, paralleled with recovery and rehabilitation. Biopsychosocial models may help the clinician make sense of individual factors that may influence the athlete’s return to sport, and the Strategic Assessment of Risk and Risk Tolerance framework may help decision-makers synthesise information to make an optimal return to sport decision. Research evidence to support return to sport decisions in clinical practice is scarce. Future research should focus on a standardised approach to defining, measuring and reporting return to sport outcomes, and identifying valuable prognostic factors for returning to sport.

Concepts: Decision making, Risk, Decision theory, Uncertainty, Clinic, Returning, Section, Sport


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that affects up to 25% of children and 2% to 3% of adults. This guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in the management and care of AD, providing updated and expanded recommendations based on the available evidence. In this first of 4 sections, methods for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease, outcomes measures for assessment, and common clinical associations that affect patients with AD are discussed. Known risk factors for the development of disease are also reviewed.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Medical terms, The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna, Affect, Section


There is a need to develop innovations that help policymakers better engage with research in order to increase its use in policymaking. As part of the Centre for Informing Policy in Health with Evidence from Research (CIPHER), we established Web CIPHER, an online tool with dynamic interactive elements such as hot topics, research summaries, blogs from trusted figures in health policy and research, a community bulletin board, multimedia section and research portal. The aim of this study was to examine policymakers' use of the website, and determine which sections were key drivers of use.

Concepts: Research, Policy, Website, Innovation, Key, Research and development, Section, Bulletin board system


Two sections of Genetics and Evolution were taught by one instructor. One group (the fully flipped section) had the entire class period devoted to active learning (with background material that had to be watched before class), and the other group (the partially flipped section) had just a portion of class time spent on active learning (with the background material presented during class time). The same materials and assessments were used for both sections. Analysis of objective measures revealed that there was no significant difference between the learning outcomes of students in the two sections. There was no main effect of gender, major, or ethnicity on success in the whole cohort or in either section. There appeared to be a significant main effect of class standing, with freshmen performing significantly less well than sophomores, juniors, or seniors (who all performed equally well) in both sections (p < 0.01); however, this was a very preliminary observation, as there were very few freshmen in either section. The only predictor of success in the two sections was prior grade point average. An anonymous end-of-semester survey showed no significant difference between the two sections in interest in the subject matter.

Concepts: Evolution, Species, Statistical significance, Effectiveness, Education, Part, Section, Subject matter


Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are important and prolific carbonate producers both in modern and ancient shallow tropical seas. During the Paleogene the genus Nummulites was particularly abundant with a global distribution, leading it to be frequently used in biostratigraphy. However, their evolution is poorly understood as classification is Europe-centered and mostly based on external characters and equatorial thin sections. New occurrences from regions outside the northern Tethys which poorly fit in thus reference frame, show that a more rigid framework for the classification of Nummulites is needed. Here we apply micro computed-tomographical scanning, a tool that recently has become available, to visualise 3D chamber shape of Nummulites djokdjokartae and compare these to traditional morphometrical characters. We find that despite the regular shape in equatorial and axial thin section the irregular 3D chamber shape is not predicted by these sections. We argue that 3D reconstructions of Nummulites tests will be a great aid in improving our understanding of lineages within the genus Nummulites, and to elucidate its evolutionary and biogeographical history.

Concepts: Evolution, Biology, Species, Manifold, Fossil, Shape, Section, Foraminifera


The [2 + 2] photocycloaddition is undisputedly the most important and most frequently used photochemical reaction. In this review, it is attempted to cover all recent aspects of [2 + 2] photocycloaddition chemistry with an emphasis on synthetically relevant, regio-, and stereoselective reactions. The review aims to comprehensively discuss relevant work, which was done in the field in the last 20 years (i.e., from 1995 to 2015). Organization of the data follows a subdivision according to mechanism and substrate classes. Cu(I) and PET (photoinduced electron transfer) catalysis are treated separately in sections 2 and 4 , whereas the vast majority of photocycloaddition reactions which occur by direct excitation or sensitization are divided within section 3 into individual subsections according to the photochemically excited olefin.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Chemical reaction, Chemistry, Hydrogenation, Physical chemistry, Photochemistry, Photochemical reaction, Section


The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of bike type - the 26-inch-wheel bike (26" bike) and the 29-inch-wheel bike (29" bike) - on performance in elite mountain bikers. Ten Swiss National Team athletes (seven males, three females) completed six trials with individual start on a simulated cross-country course with 35 min of active recovery between trials (three trials on a 26" bike and three trials on a 29" bike, alternate order, randomised start-bike). The course consisted of two separate sections expected to favour either the 29" bike (section A) or the 26" bike (section B). For each trial performance, power output, cadence and heart rate were recorded and athletes' experiences were documented. Mean overall performance (time: 304 ± 27 s vs. 311 ± 29 s; P < 0.01) and performance in sections A (P < 0.001) and B (P < 0.05) were better when using the 29" bike. No significant differences were observed for power output, cadence or heart rate. Athletes rated the 29" bike as better for performance in general, passing obstacles and traction. The 29" bike supports superior performance for elite mountain bikers, even on sections supposed to favour the 26" bike.

Concepts: Section, Bicycle, Cross country running


Nitrogen heterocycles are among the most significant structural components of pharmaceuticals. Analysis of our database of US FDA approved drugs reveals that 59% of unique small molecule drugs contain a nitrogen heterocycle. In this perspective we report on the top 25 most commonly utilized nitrogen heterocycles found in pharmaceuticals. The main part of our analysis is divided into seven sections: 3 & 4, 5, 6 and 7 & 8-membered, as well as fused, bridged bicyclic and macrocyclic nitrogen heterocycles. Each section reveals the top nitrogen heterocyclic structures and their relative impact for that ring type. For the most frequently used nitrogen heterocycles, we report detailed substitution patterns, highlight common architectural cores and discuss unusual or rare structures.

Concepts: Mathematics, Structure, Pharmaceutical drug, Heterocyclic compound, Food and Drug Administration, Section, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Abbreviated New Drug Application


Abstract Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must utilise and optimise a range of mental qualities to withstand the pressures that they experience. In this article, we discuss psychological resilience in sport performers via a review of the stressors athletes encounter and the protective factors that help them withstand these demands. It is hoped that synthesising what is known in these areas will help researchers gain a deeper profundity of resilience in sport, and also provide a rigorous and robust foundation for the development of a sport-specific measure of resilience. With these points in mind, we divided the narrative into two main sections. In the first section, we review the different types of stressors encountered by sport performers under three main categories: competitive, organisational and personal. Based on our recent research examining psychological resilience in Olympics champions, in the second section we discuss the five main families of psychological factors (viz. positive personality, motivation, confidence, focus, perceived social support) that protect the best athletes from the potential negative effect of stressors. It is anticipated that this review will help sport psychology researchers examine the interplay between stressors and protective factors, which will, in turn, focus the analytical lens on the processes underlying psychological resilience in athletes.

Concepts: Psychology, Personality psychology, Cognition, Perception, Mind, Positive psychology, Section, Psychological resilience


The loess stratigraphic boundary at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition defined by the magnetic susceptibility (MS) has previously been assumed to be synchronous with the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2/1 boundary, and approximately time-synchronous at different sections across the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). However, although this assumption has been used as a basis for proxy-age model of Chinese loess deposits, it has rarely been tested by using absolute dating methods. In this study, we applied a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol to the 45-63 μm quartz grain-size fraction to derive luminescence ages for the last glacial and Holocene sections of three loess sections on a transect from southeast to northwest across the CLP. Based on the 33 closely spaced optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) samples from the three sections, OSL chronologies were established using a polynomial curve fit at each section. Based on the OSL chronology, the timing of the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, as defined by rapid changes in MS values, is dated at ~10.5 ka, 8.5 ka and 7.5 ka in the Yaoxian section, Jingchuan and Huanxian sections respectively. These results are clearly inconsistent with the MIS 2/1 boundary age of 12.05 ka, and therefore we conclude that the automatic correlation of the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, as inferred from the MS record, with the MIS 2/1 boundary is incorrect. The results clearly demonstrate that the marked changes in MS along the southeast to northwest transect are time-transgressive among the different sites, with the timing of significant paleosol development as indicated by the MS record being delayed by 3-4 ka in the northwest compared to the southeast. Our results suggest that this asynchronous paleosol development during the last deglacial was caused by the delayed arrival of the summer monsoon in the northwest CLP compared to the southeast.

Concepts: Southeast Asia, Erosion, Magnetic susceptibility, Yellow River, Section, Loess, Loess Plateau, Absolute dating