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Concept: Scale


Lepidopteran scales exhibit remarkably complex ultrastructures, many of which produce structural colors that are the basis for diverse communication strategies. Little is known, however, about the early evolution of lepidopteran scales and their photonic structures. We report scale architectures from Jurassic Lepidoptera from the United Kingdom, Germany, Kazakhstan, and China and from Tarachoptera (a stem group of Amphiesmenoptera) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. The Jurassic lepidopterans exhibit a type 1 bilayer scale vestiture: an upper layer of large fused cover scales and a lower layer of small fused ground scales. This scale arrangement, plus preserved herringbone ornamentation on the cover scale surface, is almost identical to those of some extant Micropterigidae. Critically, the fossil scale ultrastructures have periodicities measuring from 140 to 2000 nm and are therefore capable of scattering visible light, providing the earliest evidence of structural colors in the insect fossil record. Optical modeling confirms that diffraction-related scattering mechanisms dominate the photonic properties of the fossil cover scales, which would have displayed broadband metallic hues as in numerous extant Micropterigidae. The fossil tarachopteran scales exhibit a unique suite of characteristics, including small size, elongate-spatulate shape, ridged ornamentation, and irregular arrangement, providing novel insight into the early evolution of lepidopteran scales. Combined, our results provide the earliest evidence for structural coloration in fossil lepidopterans and support the hypothesis that fused wing scales and the type 1 bilayer covering are groundplan features of the group. Wing scales likely had deep origins in earlier amphiesmenopteran lineages before the appearance of the Lepidoptera.

Concepts: Evolution, Insect, Color, Geology, Scale, Lepidoptera, Fossil, Trichoptera


In vertebrates, skin colour patterns emerge from nonlinear dynamical microscopic systems of cell interactions. Here we show that in ocellated lizards a quasi-hexagonal lattice of skin scales, rather than individual chromatophore cells, establishes a green and black labyrinthine pattern of skin colour. We analysed time series of lizard scale colour dynamics over four years of their development and demonstrate that this pattern is produced by a cellular automaton (a grid of elements whose states are iterated according to a set of rules based on the states of neighbouring elements) that dynamically computes the colour states of individual mesoscopic skin scales to produce the corresponding macroscopic colour pattern. Using numerical simulations and mathematical derivation, we identify how a discrete von Neumann cellular automaton emerges from a continuous Turing reaction-diffusion system. Skin thickness variation generated by three-dimensional morphogenesis of skin scales causes the underlying reaction-diffusion dynamics to separate into microscopic and mesoscopic spatial scales, the latter generating a cellular automaton. Our study indicates that cellular automata are not merely abstract computational systems, but can directly correspond to processes generated by biological evolution.

Concepts: Mathematics, Scale, Cellular automaton, John von Neumann, Movable cellular automaton, Stephen Wolfram, Conway's Game of Life, Rule 30


OBJECTIVE:To determine the self-reported practices and attitudes surrounding concussion diagnosis and management in a single, large pediatric care network.METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was distributed to pediatric primary care and emergency medicine providers in a single, large pediatric care network. For all survey participants, practices and attitudes about concussion diagnosis and treatment were queried.RESULTS:There were 145 responses from 276 eligible providers, resulting in a 53% response rate, of which 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86%-95%) had cared for at least 1 concussion patient in the previous 3 months. A Likert scale from 1 “not a barrier” to 5 “significant barrier” was used to assess providers' barriers to educating families about the diagnosis of concussion. Providers selected 4 or 5 on the scale for the following barriers and frequencies: inadequate training to educate 16% (95% CI: 11%-23%), inadequate time to educate 15% (95% CI: 12%-24%), and not my role to educate 1% (95% CI: 0.4%-5%). Ninety-six percent (95% CI: 91%-98%) of providers without a provider decision support tool (such as a clinical pathway or protocol) specific to concussion, and 100% (95% CI: 94%-100%) of providers without discharge instructions specific to concussion believed these resources would be helpful.CONCLUSIONS:Although pediatric primary care and emergency medicine providers regularly care for concussion patients, they may not have adequate training or infrastructure to systematically diagnose and manage these patients. Specific provider education, decision support tools, and patient information could help enhance and standardize concussion management.

Concepts: Medical terms, Education, Physician, Educational psychology, Normal distribution, Scale, Decision support system, Likert scale


According to the facial feedback hypothesis, people’s affective responses can be influenced by their own facial expression (e.g., smiling, pouting), even when their expression did not result from their emotional experiences. For example, Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) instructed participants to rate the funniness of cartoons using a pen that they held in their mouth. In line with the facial feedback hypothesis, when participants held the pen with their teeth (inducing a “smile”), they rated the cartoons as funnier than when they held the pen with their lips (inducing a “pout”). This seminal study of the facial feedback hypothesis has not been replicated directly. This Registered Replication Report describes the results of 17 independent direct replications of Study 1 from Strack et al. (1988), all of which followed the same vetted protocol. A meta-analysis of these studies examined the difference in funniness ratings between the “smile” and “pout” conditions. The original Strack et al. (1988) study reported a rating difference of 0.82 units on a 10-point Likert scale. Our meta-analysis revealed a rating difference of 0.03 units with a 95% confidence interval ranging from -0.11 to 0.16.

Concepts: Sample size, Scale, Replication, Likert scale, Facial Action Coding System, Facial expressions


The transition of pediatric burn survivors into adulthood is accompanied by a reformulation of their self-concept. To anticipate the need for and guide development of appropriate psychosocial interventions, this study examines how young adults who were burned as children perceive themselves and how this perception might affect their self-esteem. Eighty-two young adult burn survivors (45 male, 37 female) were assessed using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, 2nd edition (TSCS2) to determine how the participants perceive themselves and their interaction with society. To gain insight into the possible effects of these self-concept scores, relationships were analyzed between self-concept, a behavioral assessment (Young Adult Self-Report [YASR]) and a psychiatric symptom assessment (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders [SCID I]). This group of burn survivors scored significantly lower in self-concepts, reflected in TSCS2 subscale scores of physical function, appearance, and sexuality, moral conduct, personal values, academics and work, and identity than did the reference population. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that as moral, personal, family, and social aspects of self-concept decreased, clinical problems endorsed on the YASR subscales increased, including anxiety somatic, attention, intrusive, and aggressive. Persons with lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 personal, family, and social scales, were more withdrawn on the YASR. Similarly, those with lower TSCS2 scores on the personal and family scales endorsed significantly more thought problems on the YASR. Affective distress on the SCID I was associated with significantly lower self-concept. TSCS2 total self-concept, personal, and all of the supplementary scale scores were significantly lower for the group with an affective disorder. Those whose SCID I scores were consistent with a current anxiety disorder had significantly lower scores for the TSCS2 total self-concept and personal. Lower self-concept was associated with endorsement of SCID I symptoms (Identity, P = .0018, Satisfaction, P = .0018, and Behavior, P =.0004). Although the major limitation of this study using the TSCS2 is the lack of a matched reference population to compare with the burn survivors, the TSCS2 does help in gaining insight into the self-esteem issues of this population.

Concepts: Psychology, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Scale, Morality, Adult, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, DSM-IV Codes, Musical scale


Aim:  Do different clothing styles have an influence on the doctor-patient-parent relationship and which kind of outfit is preferred by children and parents. Methods:  One hundred and seven children and 72 parents were visited by a paediatrician randomly wearing one of the three different outfits (casual, semiformal, formal) during a hospital stay. Parents and children between 6 and 18 years were then interviewed about their opinion by use of a semi-structured questionnaire, while children between 0 and 6 years were observed concerning their behaviour during the examination. Results:  Using a ‘likert scale’, the casual outfit received the best mark by 95.5% of parents (58.3% in the semiformal, 30.8% in the formal group). The degree of the parents' trust in the paediatrician was comparable in all three groups. In children between 6 and 18 years, the casual dress was rated highest in 100%. In children between 0 and 6 years, the outfit had no significant influence on the patients' behaviour. Conclusion:  Apparently, parents do not only tolerate a casual outfit, but even prefer it without any loss of trust. The same holds true for children between 6 and 18 years. For younger children, the paediatricians' outfit seems to play no major role.

Concepts: Motivation, Scale, Preference, Degree of a polynomial, Likert scale, Clothing, Dress code, Casual


Assessing functional diversity from space can help predict productivity and stability of forest ecosystems at global scale using biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. We present a new spatially continuous method to map regional patterns of tree functional diversity using combined laser scanning and imaging spectroscopy. The method does not require prior taxonomic information and integrates variation in plant functional traits between and within plant species. We compare our method with leaf-level field measurements and species-level plot inventory data and find reasonable agreement. Morphological and physiological diversity show consistent change with topography and soil, with low functional richness at a mountain ridge under specific environmental conditions. Overall, functional richness follows a logarithmic increase with area, whereas divergence and evenness are scale invariant. By mapping diversity at scales of individual trees to whole communities we demonstrate the potential of assessing functional diversity from space, providing a pathway only limited by technological advances and not by methodology.

Concepts: Species, Method acting, Ecosystem, Tree, Methodology, Map, Scale, Scales


PURPOSE:To determine whether children tolerate cyclopentolate 1% spray better than drops and to assess the adequacy of cycloplegia achieved by spray for objective refraction. METHODS:The effects of cyclopentolate 1% drops and spray on distress levels were assessed prospectively using a guardian questionnaire in consecutive patients 10 years of age or younger. Distress was graded at various points during the appointment using a Likert scale of 1 to 10 (1 = no distress, 10 = severe distress). The adequacy of cycloplegia in children receiving cyclopentolate spray and the waiting times were assessed via a Likert questionnaire completed by the examining physician. RESULTS:The guardians of 72 and 77 children who received cyclopentolate 1% drops or spray, respectively, completed the questionnaire. The children were divided in three age groups: 1 to 4 years, 5 to 7 years, and 8 to 10 years. Children 7 years or younger were significantly less distressed by administration of cyclopentolate 1% spray (P < .005). There was no statistical difference in distress levels in children older than 7 years (P = .9719). Thirteen of the 77 children who received cyclopentolate 1% spray did not have adequate cycloplegia to allow objective refraction. CONCLUSION:The results demonstrate cyclopentolate 1% spray is less distressing at the time of administration than cyclopentolate 1% drops for children 7 years or younger. However, the cycloplegia achieved is not adequate in a high percentage of children.[J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 20XX;XX(X):XX-XX.].

Concepts: Physician, Assessment, Psychometrics, Ophthalmology, Scale, Likert scale, Distressing, Distress


Background: Entering medical school may be associated with changes in the students' life, which can affect academic motivation and impair academic performance. Aims: This work aimed at measuring longitudinally academic motivation, anxiety, depression and social adjustment in first-year medical students and determining the relationships between these variables and academic performance, as measured mainly by grades on regular exams. Methods: Eighty-five first-year medical students (age: 17-25 years) were included after giving informed consent. Beck’s Anxiety (BAI) and Beck’s Depression (BDI) Inventories, the self-reported Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR) and the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) were applied two months after admission and at the end of the academic year. Results: BAI scores increased throughout the year (7.3 ± 6.6 versus 28.8 ± 6.7; p < 0.001), whereas BDI scores did not change (6.8 ± 5.9 versus 6.0 ± 5.4; p > 0.10). SAS-SR subscales scores remained stable, except for a decreasing pattern for leisure/social life (1.8 ± 0.4 versus 2.1 ± 0.4; p < 0.001). AMS scores for motivation to know (22.2 ± 4.5 versus 19.7 ± 5.5; p < 0.001), to accomplish things to know (17.7 ± 5.3 versus 15.4 ± 5.3; p = 0.001), to experience to know (18.2 ± 5.2 versus 15.4 ± 5.4; p < 0.001) and by identification to know (23.5 ± 3.5 versus 21.8 ± 5.0; p = 0.002) decreased significantly. There were no significant correlations between academic performance and the global scores for any of the scales except for the SAS-SR subscale for academic life (r = - 0.48, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Throughout the academic year, first-year medical students showed increased anxiety, decreased academic motivation and a maladjusted leisure/social life, which however does not seem to affect academic achievement.

Concepts: Informed consent, Measurement, Affect, University, Medical school, Scale, Emotion, Musical scale


Screens for developmental delay generally provide a set of norms for different age groups. Development varies continuously with age, however, and applying a single criterion for an age range will inevitably produce misclassifications. In this report, we estimate the resulting error rate for one example: the cognitive subscale of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III).

Concepts: Infant, Developmental biology, Childhood, Developmental psychology, Scale, Human development, Child development, Age groups in Scouting and Guiding