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Concept: Sanskrit


India is a patchwork of tribal and non-tribal populations that speak many different languages from various language families. Indo-European, spoken across northern and central India, and also in Pakistan and Bangladesh, has been frequently connected to the so-called “Indo-Aryan invasions” from Central Asia ~3.5┬áka and the establishment of the caste system, but the extent of immigration at this time remains extremely controversial. South India, on the other hand, is dominated by Dravidian languages. India displays a high level of endogamy due to its strict social boundaries, and high genetic drift as a result of long-term isolation which, together with a very complex history, makes the genetic study of Indian populations challenging.

Concepts: India, Sri Lanka, South Asia, Urdu, Sanskrit, Language family, Indo-European languages, Dravidian languages


Self-report measures indicate that Yoga practices are perceived to reduce stress; however, molecular mechanisms through which YB affects stress are just beginning to be understood. While invasive sampling such as blood has been widely used to measure biological indicators such as pro-inflammatory biomarkers, the use of saliva to measure changes in various biomolecules has been increasingly recognized. As Yoga practice stimulates salivary secretion, and saliva is considered a source of biomarkers, changes in salivary cytokines before and after Yogic breathing exercise as specified in an ancient Tamil script, Thirumanthiram, were examined using a Cytokine Multiplex to compare to Attention Control (AC) group.

Concepts: Antibody, Oxygen, Molecular biology, Randomized controlled trial, Exercise, Tamil language, Sanskrit, Hinduism


The early treatment of Class III malocclusion with a protraction facemask can produce forward movement of the maxilla but is generally associated with posterior rotation of the mandible and dentoalveolar compensations. This article shows the dental and skeletal effects of intermaxillary elastics applied to temporary anchorage devices in the treatment of maxillary deficient Class III patients.

Concepts: Mouth, Maxilla, Dental anatomy, Sanskrit, Bones of the head and neck, Dental consonant


Sri Lanka has a long history of malaria control, and over the past decade has had dramatic declines in cases amid a national conflict. A case study of Sri Lanka’s malaria programme was conducted to characterize the programme and explain recent progress.

Concepts: Scientific method, Malaria, India, Sri Lanka, Sanskrit, Sri



To assess the extent of lead content of sindoor, a powder used by Hindus for religious and cultural purposes, which has been linked to childhood lead poisoning when inadvertently ingested.

Concepts: India, Cosmetics, New York City, Sanskrit, Hinduism, History of India, Hindu, Hindustan


Dysphagia and potential respiratory pathogens in the oral biofilm are risk factors for aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents. The aim of the study was to examine if the daily application of 0.05% chlorhexidine oral rinse solution is effective in reducing the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents with dysphagia. Associations between background variables (age, gender, dysphagia severity, care dependency, medication use, number of medical diagnoses, teeth and dental implants, and wearing removable dentures) and the incidence of aspiration pneumonia were also examined.

Concepts: Bacteria, Pneumonia, Dental implant, Nursing home, Aspiration pneumonia, Oral hygiene, Dysphagia, Sanskrit


Research indicates that maintaining contact either via letter or postcard with at-risk adults following discharge from care services after a suicide attempt (SA) can reduce reattempt risk. Pilot studies have demonstrated that interventions using mobile health (mHealth) technologies are feasible in a suicide prevention setting.

Concepts: Health care, Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial, Evaluation methods, Declension, Inflection, American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, Sanskrit



Fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin is a rare cause of poisoning even in endemic countries for tuberculosis infection. Severe poisoning can cause severe morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly. Though intravenous pyridoxine is the preferred antidote for severe standard isoniazid poisoning it is not freely available even in best of care centers. We describe a case of severe poisoning with fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin successfully managed with oral pyridoxine at national hospital of Sri Lanka.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Infectious disease, Mortality rate, Tuberculosis, Sri Lanka, Isoniazid, Sanskrit, Sri