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Concept: Sacrum

183

Fishes have adapted a number of different behaviors to move out of the water, but none have been described as being able to walk on land with a tetrapod-like gait. Here we show that the blind cavefish Cryptotora thamicola walks and climbs waterfalls with a salamander-like diagonal-couplets lateral sequence gait and has evolved a robust pelvic girdle that shares morphological features associated with terrestrial vertebrates. In all other fishes, the pelvic bones are suspended in a muscular sling or loosely attached to the pectoral girdle anteriorly. In contrast, the pelvic girdle of Cryptotora is a large, broad puboischiadic plate that is joined to the iliac process of a hypertrophied sacral rib; fusion of these bones in tetrapods creates an acetabulum. The vertebral column in the sacral area has large anterior and posterior zygapophyses, transverse processes, and broad neural spines, all of which are associated with terrestrial organisms. The diagonal-couplet lateral sequence gait was accomplished by rotation of the pectoral and pelvic girdles creating a standing wave of the axial body. These findings are significant because they represent the first example of behavioural and morphological adaptation in an extant fish that converges on the tetrapodal walking behaviour and morphology.

Concepts: Vertebral column, Pelvis, Human anatomy, Acetabulum, Walking, Pubis, Sacrum, Ilium

153

A major challenge in understanding the origin of terrestrial vertebrates has been knowledge of the pelvis and hind appendage of their closest fish relatives. The pelvic girdle and appendage of tetrapods is dramatically larger and more robust than that of fish and contains a number of structures that provide greater musculoskeletal support for posture and locomotion. The discovery of pelvic material of the finned elpistostegalian, Tiktaalik roseae, bridges some of these differences. Multiple isolated pelves have been recovered, each of which has been prepared in three dimensions. Likewise, a complete pelvis and partial pelvic fin have been recovered in association with the type specimen. The pelves of Tiktaalik are paired and have broad iliac processes, flat and elongate pubes, and acetabulae that form a deep socket rimmed by a robust lip of bone. The pelvis is greatly enlarged relative to other finned tetrapodomorphs. Despite the enlargement and robusticity of the pelvis of Tiktaalik, it retains primitive features such as the lack of both an attachment for the sacral rib and an ischium. The pelvic fin of Tiktaalik (NUFV 108) is represented by fin rays and three endochondral elements: other elements are not preserved. The mosaic of primitive and derived features in Tiktaalik reveals that the enhancement of the pelvic appendage of tetrapods and, indeed, a trend toward hind limb-based propulsion have antecedents in the fins of their closest relatives.

Concepts: Fish, Pelvis, Sarcopterygii, Tetrapod, Sacrum, Coelacanth, Ischium, Fin

32

This article focuses on the (functional) anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvic girdle and specifically the sacroiliac joints (SIJs). The SIJs are essential for effective load transfer between the spine and legs. The sacrum, pelvis and spine, and the connections to the arms, legs and head, are functionally interrelated through muscular, fascial and ligamentous interconnections. A historical overview is presented on pelvic and especially SIJ research, followed by a general functional anatomical overview of the pelvis. In specific sections, the development and maturation of the SIJ is discussed, and a description of the bony anatomy and sexual morphism of the pelvis and SIJ is debated. The literature on the SIJ ligaments and innervation is discussed, followed by a section on the pathology of the SIJ. Pelvic movement studies are investigated and biomechanical models for SIJ stability analyzed, including examples of insufficient versus excessive sacroiliac force closure.

Concepts: Joint, Pelvis, Human anatomy, Sacroiliac joint, Joints, Sacrum

31

Sirenians are the only extant herbivorous mammals fully adapted to an aquatic lifestyle. They originated in Africa during the Paleocene from an undetermined clade of afrotherian mammals, and by the end of the Eocene they were widely distributed across the tropical latitudes. Here we introduce Sobrarbesiren cardieli gen. et sp. nov. It is the first adequately-known quadrupedal sirenian from Eurasia and the oldest record of this clade from western Europe. Fossils have been recovered from the middle Lutetian (SBZ15) site of Castejón de Sobrarbe-41 (Huesca, Spain), and comprise many cranial and postcranial remains, including pelvic girdle and hind limb bones, from at least six sirenian individuals of different ontogenetic stages. Sobrarbesiren shows a suite of characters previously considered synapomorphies of different clades of derived sirenians, such as the presence of the processus retroversus of the squamosal and the pterygoid fossa, combined with ancestral characters such as the presence of an alisphenoid canal, a permanent P5, at least two sacral vertebrae, a primitive pelvis and functional femora and fibulae. Sobrarbesiren is recovered as the sister taxon of Dugongidae and represents a transitional stage of adaptation to aquatic life between the amphibious quadrupedal prorastomids and the aquatic quadrupedal protosirenids.

Concepts: Mammal, Europe, Pelvis, Cladistics, Spain, Sacrum, Eocene, Sirenia

31

Recent interpretations of the postcranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs differ about pneumatic features supporting an avian-like ventilatory system; the most conservative workers reject most postcranial pneumatizations as being unambiguous evidence of abdominal air sacs. Here we describe the first articulated dinosaur skeleton from Tunisia and refer it to a new rebbachisaurid sauropod, Tataouinea hannibalis gen. et sp. nov. The Tunisian specimen shows a complex pattern of caudosacral and pelvic pneumatization-including the first report of an ischial pneumatic foramen among Dinosauria-strongly supporting the presence of abdominal air sacs. Character optimization among Rebbachisauridae indicates that in the caudal vertebrae, pneumatization of the neural arches preceded that of the centra; in the pelvis, pneumatization of the bones adjacent to the sacrum preceded that of more distal elements. Tataouinea was more closely related to European nigersaurines than to otherwise Gondwanan rebbachisaurids; this supports an Afro-European route for rebbachisaurid dispersal.

Concepts: Pelvis, Cretaceous, Sacrum, Sauropoda, Dinosaur, Pelvimetry, Rebbachisauridae, Diplodocoidea

28

Background:Most posture problems encountered in persons who use wheelchairs in a seated posture for extended periods are related to sacral sitting due to posterior pelvic tilt. Posterior pelvic tilt places pressure and shearing force on the sacrococcygeal area that can lead to pressure ulcers, but the relationship between pelvic tilt and force applied to the sacrococcygeal and ischial tuberosity areas has not yet been investigated.Objective:To investigate the relationships of posterior pelvic tilt in a seated posture with vertical force and horizontal force on the sacrococcygeal and ischial tuberosity areas.Study Design:Repeated measures design.Methods:Thirty male and female subjects aged ≥60 years sat in a measurement chair at varying pelvic tilt angles, and force on the sacrococcygeal and ischial tuberosity areas was measured.Results:The pressure on the sacrococcygeal area increased with pelvic tilt in all subjects, with vertical force averaging 19% of the body weight at a pelvic tilt angle of 30°. The horizontal force on the sacrococcygeal area increased in 93% of the subjects, with an average increase equal to 3% of the body weight.Conclusions:We confirmed changes in vertical and horizontal forces on the sacrococcygeal and ischial tuberosity areas with a change in seated posture (pelvic tilt).Clinical relevance:We propose guidelines for rehabilitation practitioners working with wheelchair users to suggest improved ways of sitting in wheelchairs that avoid pelvic tilt angles that might promote pressure ulcers on the buttocks.

Concepts: Mass, Force, Pelvis, Shear stress, Sacrum, Wheelchair, Tuberosity of the ischium, Sacrococcygeal symphysis

27

Trunk balance in upright stance expresses an individual postural strategy found on anatomic and functional parameters. The “pelvic vertebra” is an essential transitional region for the coherence of spinal parameters (notably, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis) and pelvic parameters (sacral slope, pelvic tilt and incidence). Deterioration of this postural harmony is often associated with spinal aging, maladjusted spinal arthrodeses, or mechanical abnormalities of the hip joints. Spinal surgeons are aware of the importance of detecting and analyzing sagittal imbalance, whether compensated or not. The influence of the hip joint, however, is underestimated and poorly objectified on conventional imaging, as are its interrelations with overall lower-limb posture. Currently, hip surgeons focus basically on the pelvis as bone reference in planning implantation, peroperative adjustment and failure analysis. The antero-posterior (AP) pelvic view is the gold standard, with lateral views being little used. Influenced by the classic anatomic attitude in favor of transverse slices in dorsal decubitus, CT is considered the reference method for “horizontal” assessment of the hip joint. The present study draws attention to a more global vision of the pelvic and subpelvic regions in the sagittal balance of the trunk, relying on the sitting as well as the standing posture, as both involve subtle mechanisms of adaptation governed by the pelvic incidence angle.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Vertebral column, Hip, Pelvis, Human anatomy, Sacrum, Lordosis, Obturator internus muscle

23

The high energy cost of paraplegic walking using a reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) is attributed to limited hip motion and excessive upper limb loading for support. To address the limitation, we designed the hip energy storage walking orthosis (HESWO) which uses a spring assembly on the pelvic shell to store energy from the movements of the healthy upper limbs and flexion-extension of the lumbar spine and hip and returns this energy to lift the pelvis and lower limb to assist with the swing and stance components of a stride. Our aim was to evaluate gait and energy cost indices for the HESWO compared to the RGO in patients with paraplegia.

Concepts: Kinetic energy, Pelvis, Human anatomy, Capacitor, Upper limb, Sacrum, Limb, Limbs

22

Many studies suggest that impairment of motor control is the mechanical component of the pathogenesis of painful disorders in the lumbo-sacral region; however, this theory is still unproven and the results and recommendations for intervention remain questionable. The need for a force to compress both innominate bones against the sacrum is the basis for treatment of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PGP). Therefore, it is advised to use a pelvic belt and do exercises to enhance contraction of the muscles which provide this compression. However, our clinical experience is that contraction of those muscles appears to be excessive in PGP. Therefore, in patients with long-lasting pregnancy-related posterior PGP, there is a need to investigate the contraction pattern of an important muscle that provides a compressive force, i.e. the transverse abdominal muscle (TrA), during a load transfer test, such as active straight leg raising (ASLR).

Concepts: Scientific method, Childbirth, Pelvis, Thigh, Sacrum, Pelvic girdle pain, Pelvimetry, Hip bone

6

Here we provide a detailed description of the postcranial skeleton of the holotype and referred specimens ofBuitreraptor gonzalezorum. This taxon was recovered as an unenlagiine dromaeosaurid in several recent phylogenetic studies and is the best represented Gondwanan dromaeosaurid discovered to date. It was preliminarily described in a brief article, but a detailed account of its osteology is emerging in recent works. The holotype is the most complete specimen yet found, so an exhaustive description of it provides much valuable anatomical information. The holotype and referred specimens preserve the axial skeleton, pectoral and pelvic girdles, and both fore- and hindlimbs. Diagnostic postcranial characters of this taxon include: anterior cervical centra exceeding the posterior limit of neural arch; eighth and ninth cervical vertebral centra with lateroventral tubercles; pneumatic foramina only in anteriormost dorsals; middle and posterior caudal centra with a complex of shallow ridges on lateral surfaces; pneumatic furcula with two pneumatic foramina on the ventral surface; scapular blade transversely expanded at mid-length; well-projected flexor process on distal end of the humerus; dorsal rim of the ilium laterally everted; and concave dorsal rim of the postacetabular iliac blade. A paleohistological study of limb bones shows that the holotype represents an earlier ontogenetic stage than one of the referred specimens (MPCA 238), which correlates with the fusion of the last sacral vertebra to the rest of the sacrum in MPCA 238. A revised phylogenetic analysis recoveredBuitreraptoras an unenlagiine dromaeosaurid, in agreement with previous works. The phylogenetic implications of the unenlagiine synapomorphies and other characters, such as the specialized pedal digit II and the distal ginglymus on metatarsal II, are discussed within the evolutionary framework of Paraves.

Concepts: Vertebral column, Pelvis, Vertebra, Human anatomy, Coccyx, Sacrum, Dinosaur, Dromaeosauridae