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Concept: Roman numerals


The purpose of this study was to examine the match activity profile of U9 and U10 elite soccer players and to establish if there were any differences between players who were subsequently retained or released by their clubs. Such information should prove valuable in the design of training programs for these very young players and in the talent identification and development process. A Global Positioning System was used to analyze 2-4 inter-academy 6-a-side matches of English Premier League Academy players (U9: N = 22 and U10: N = 12) who trained three times a week (4.5 h) . Speed zones were created based on 5 and 10 m sprint times and an independent sample t-test was employed for a statistical analysis.Both squads covered ∼4000 m in total or ∼4700 m·h during a match (NS between squads), with the U10s tending to cover a greater distance at moderate (p = 0.10) and high speeds (p = 0.08) than the U9s. Retained group covered a greater distance than released group (retained vs. released: 4478 ± 513 m vs. 4091 ± 462 m, p < 0.05) during a match and covered a greater distance during low speed running in absolute (1226 ± 259 m vs. 1005 ± 221 m, p < 0.05) and relative (1325 ± 235 m[BULLET OPERATOR]h vs. 1132 ± 210 m[BULLET OPERATOR]h, p < 0.05) terms.Thus, U9 and U10 players cover over 4000 m in match play and those players who are retained by academies cover a greater distance in total and at low speeds (2.1-3.1 m·s). This information may support the preparation of squad training programs and the talent identification and development process.

Concepts: Student's t-test, Premier League, Global Positioning System, Roman numerals, Global navigation satellite system, Positioning system, 1001, Nautical mile


There are reports of an association between benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and hyperuricemia. We sought to determine the risk of vertigo among patients with gout compared with the general population, using a nationwide Taiwanese population-based claims database. Our study cohort consisted of patients with a diagnosis of gout disorders in 2004 (N=18773). Four age- and gender-matched controls for every patient in the study cohort were selected using random sampling as the comparison cohort (N=75092). All subjects were followed from the date of cohort entry until they developed vertigo or to the end of 2006. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the 3-year vertigo-free survival rates. Of the total sample, 2563 (incidence, 10.09 per 1000 person-years) had vertigo during the 3-year follow-up period: 570 (incidence, 11.78 per 1000 person-years) from the study cohort and 1993 (incidence, 9.69 per 1000 person-years) from the comparison cohort. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of peripheral and central vertigo in patients with gout compared with controls during the 2-3-year follow-up were 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.29, p=0.003) and 1.08 (95% CI=0.86-1.36, p=0.53), respectively. This is the first population-based study performed to suggest that patients with gout may have an increased risk of peripheral vertigo but not central vertigo. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo may be the reason for the observed association; however, future studies are required to further ascertain the relationship between gout and the various causes of peripheral vertigo.

Concepts: Sample, Cohort study, Sample size, Sampling, Risk, Confidence interval, Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Roman numerals


Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

Concepts: Psychology, Quality, Child, Childhood, Love, Human Development Index, Roman numerals


BACKGROUND: Lower-respiratory-tract infection is one of the most common acute illnesses managed in primary care. Few placebo-controlled studies of antibiotics have been done, and overall effectiveness (particularly in subgroups such as older people) is debated. We aimed to compare the benefits and harms of amoxicillin for acute lower-respiratory-tract infection with those of placebo both overall and in patients aged 60 years or older. METHODS: Patients older than 18 years with acute lower-respiratory-tract infections (cough of ≤28 days' duration) in whom pneumonia was not suspected were randomly assigned (1:1) to either amoxicillin (1 g three times daily for 7 days) or placebo by computer-generated random numbers. Our primary outcome was duration of symptoms rated “moderately bad” or worse. Secondary outcomes were symptom severity in days 2-4 and new or worsening symptoms. Investigators and patients were masked to treatment allocation. This trial is registered with EudraCT (2007-001586-15), UKCRN Portfolio (ID 4175), ISRCTN (52261229), and FWO (G.0274.08N). FINDINGS: 1038 patients were assigned to the amoxicillin group and 1023 to the placebo group. Neither duration of symptoms rated “moderately bad” or worse (hazard ratio 1·06, 95% CI 0·96-1·18; p=0·229) nor mean symptom severity (1·69 with placebo vs 1·62 with amoxicillin; difference -0·07 [95% CI -0·15 to 0·007]; p=0·074) differed significantly between groups. New or worsening symptoms were significantly less common in the amoxicillin group than in the placebo group (162 [15·9%] of 1021 patients vs 194 [19·3%] of 1006; p=0·043; number needed to treat 30). Cases of nausea, rash, or diarrhoea were significantly more common in the amoxicillin group than in the placebo group (number needed to harm 21, 95% CI 11-174; p=0·025), and one case of anaphylaxis was noted with amoxicillin. Two patients in the placebo group and one in the amoxicillin group needed to be admitted to hospital; no study-related deaths were noted. We noted no evidence of selective benefit in patients aged 60 years or older (n=595). INTERPRETATION: When pneumonia is not suspected clinically, amoxicillin provides little benefit for acute lower-respiratory-tract infection in primary care both overall and in patients aged 60 years or more, and causes slight harms. FUNDING: European Commission Framework Programme 6, UK National Institute for Health Research, Barcelona Ciberde Enfermedades Respiratorias, and Research Foundation Flanders.

Concepts: Disease, Death, Medical terms, Symptoms, Placebo, Randomness, Fatigue, Roman numerals


1000 I. 1000 II. 1001 III. 1014 IV. 1015 V. 1016 1016 References 1016 SUMMARY: Genetic engineering (GE) can be used to improve forest plantation productivity and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, gene flow from GE forest plantations is a large source of ecological, social and legal controversy. The use of genetic technologies to mitigate or prevent gene flow has been discussed widely and should be technically feasible in a variety of plantation taxa. However, potential ecological effects of such modifications, and their social acceptability, are not well understood. Focusing on Eucalyptus, Pinus, Populus and Pseudotsuga - genera that represent diverse modes of pollination and seed dispersal - we conducted in-depth reviews of ecological processes associated with reproductive tissues. We also explored potential impacts of various forms of reproductive modification at stand and landscape levels, and means for mitigating impacts. We found little research on potential reactions by the public and other stakeholders to reproductive modification in forest plantations. However, there is considerable research on related areas that suggest key dimensions of concern and support. We provide detailed suggestions for research to understand the biological and social dimensions of containment technologies, and consider the role of regulatory and market restrictions that obstruct necessary ecological and genetic research.

Concepts: DNA, Biology, Organism, Ecology, Forest, Pine, Roman numerals, Plantation


When varicella vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1995, there were concerns that childhood vaccination might increase the number of adolescents susceptible to varicella and shift disease toward older age groups where it can be more severe.METHODS: We conducted a series of 5 cross-sectional studies in 1994 to 1995 (prevaccine), 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009 in Kaiser Permanente of Northern California to assess changes in varicella epidemiology in children and adolescents, as well as changes in varicella hospitalization in people of all ages. For each study, information on varicella history and varicella occurrence during the past year was obtained by telephone survey from a sample of ∼8000 members 5 to 19 years old; varicella hospitalization rates were calculated for the entire membership.RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2009, the overall incidence of varicella in 5- to 19-year-olds decreased from 25.8 to 1.3 per 1000 person-years, a ∼90% to 95% decline in the various age categories (5-9, 10-14, and 15-19 years of age). The proportion of varicella-susceptible children and adolescents also decreased in all age groups, including in 15- to 19-year-olds (from 15.6% in 1995 to 7.6% in 2009). From 1994 to 2009, age-adjusted varicella hospitalization rates in the general member population decreased from 2.13 to 0.25 per 100 000, a ∼90% decline.CONCLUSIONS: In the 15 years after the introduction of varicella vaccine, a major reduction in varicella incidence and hospitalization was observed with no evidence of a shift in the burden of varicella to older age groups.

Concepts: Public health, Epidemiology, Demography, 1911, Kaiser Permanente, Smallpox, 1921, Roman numerals


We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals - individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative - with those of pure familial dextrals - right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd’s (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals' responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere.

Concepts: Psychology, Brain, Number, Numeral system, 10, Roman numerals, Decimal, Number system


Cefiderocol is a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin that shows potent efficacy against various Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant strains, in vitro and in preclinical models of infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of cefiderocol after both single and multiple dosing by intravenous infusion over 60 min in healthy adult subjects. A single-ascending-dose study at doses of 100, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg was conducted in 40 healthy Japanese males and females (six active and two placebo per cohort). A multiple-ascending-dose study at doses of 1000 (two groups), and 2000 mg every 8 h (q8h) was conducted in 30 healthy Japanese and Caucasian males (eight active and two placebo per cohort). There were no serious or clinically significant adverse events (AEs) observed in either study. A single subject receiving 1000 mg cefiderocol q8h was withdrawn due to AEs. Dose-proportional increases in Cmax, AUC0-last, and AUC0-inf were observed across the dose range of 100 to 2000 mg. The mean plasma half-life of cefiderocol was 1.98 to 2.74 h. Cefiderocol was primarily excreted unchanged in the urine (61.5% to 68.4% of dose). There was little accumulation of Cmax and AUC by q8h dosing, and the PK of cefiderocol did not change with multiple dosing. This study indicates that single and multiple intravenous doses of cefiderocol at up to 2000 mg were well tolerated in healthy subjects and exhibited linear PK at up to 2000 mg.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Escherichia coli, Dose, Dehydration, Route of administration, Chloramphenicol, Roman numerals


OBJECTIVES:Between 1984 and 1996, Sweden experienced an “epidemic” of clinical celiac disease in children <2 years of age, attributed partly to changes in infant feeding. Whether infant feeding affects disease occurrence and/or the clinical presentation remains unknown. We investigated and compared the total prevalence of celiac disease in 2 birth cohorts of 12-year-olds and related the findings to each cohort's ascertained infant feeding.METHODS:A 2-phase cross-sectional screening study was performed in which 13 279 children from 2 birth cohorts participated: children born during the epidemic (1993) and children born after the epidemic (1997). Previously diagnosed cases were reported and confirmed. Blood samples were analyzed for serological markers and children with positive values were referred for small intestinal biopsy. Infant feeding practices in the cohorts were ascertained via questionnaires. Prevalence comparisons were expressed as prevalence ratios.RESULTS:The total prevalence of celiac disease was 29 in 1000 and 22 in 1000 for the 1993 and 1997 cohorts, respectively. Children born in 1997 had a significantly lower risk of having celiac disease compared with those born in 1993 (prevalence ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.93; P = .01). The cohorts differed in infant feeding (specifically, in the proportion of infants introduced to dietary gluten in small amounts during ongoing breastfeeding).CONCLUSIONS:A significantly reduced prevalence of celiac disease in 12-year-olds indicates an option for disease prevention. Our findings suggest that the present infant feeding recommendation to gradually introduce gluten-containing foods from 4 months of age, preferably during ongoing breastfeeding, is favorable.

Concepts: Present, Cohort study, Infant, Epidemiology, Prevalence, Coeliac disease, Roman numerals, 1


We present a human miRNA tissue atlas by determining the abundance of 1997 miRNAs in 61 tissue biopsies of different organs from two individuals collected post-mortem. One thousand three hundred sixty-four miRNAs were discovered in at least one tissue, 143 were present in each tissue. To define the distribution of miRNAs, we utilized a tissue specificity index (TSI). The majority of miRNAs (82.9%) fell in a middle TSI range i.e. were neither specific for single tissues (TSI > 0.85) nor housekeeping miRNAs (TSI < 0.5). Nonetheless, we observed many different miRNAs and miRNA families that were predominantly expressed in certain tissues. Clustering of miRNA abundances revealed that tissues like several areas of the brain clustered together. Considering -3p and -5p mature forms we observed miR-150 with different tissue specificity. Analysis of additional lung and prostate biopsies indicated that inter-organism variability was significantly lower than inter-organ variability. Tissue-specific differences between the miRNA patterns appeared not to be significantly altered by storage as shown for heart and lung tissue. MiRNAs TSI values of human tissues were significantly (P = 10(-8)) correlated with those of rats; miRNAs that were highly abundant in certain human tissues were likewise abundant in according rat tissues. We implemented a web-based repository enabling scientists to access and browse the data (

Concepts: Cancer, Lung, Heart, Cognition, Abundance, Abundance of the chemical elements, Roman numerals, Beth Henley