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Concept: Resident


Background Concerns persist regarding the effect of current surgical resident duty-hour policies on patient outcomes, resident education, and resident well-being. Methods We conducted a national, cluster-randomized, pragmatic, noninferiority trial involving 117 general surgery residency programs in the United States (2014-2015 academic year). Programs were randomly assigned to current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour policies (standard-policy group) or more flexible policies that waived rules on maximum shift lengths and time off between shifts (flexible-policy group). Outcomes included the 30-day rate of postoperative death or serious complications (primary outcome), other postoperative complications, and resident perceptions and satisfaction regarding their well-being, education, and patient care. Results In an analysis of data from 138,691 patients, flexible, less-restrictive duty-hour policies were not associated with an increased rate of death or serious complications (9.1% in the flexible-policy group and 9.0% in the standard-policy group, P=0.92; unadjusted odds ratio for the flexible-policy group, 0.96; 92% confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.06; P=0.44; noninferiority criteria satisfied) or of any secondary postoperative outcomes studied. Among 4330 residents, those in programs assigned to flexible policies did not report significantly greater dissatisfaction with overall education quality (11.0% in the flexible-policy group and 10.7% in the standard-policy group, P=0.86) or well-being (14.9% and 12.0%, respectively; P=0.10). Residents under flexible policies were less likely than those under standard policies to perceive negative effects of duty-hour policies on multiple aspects of patient safety, continuity of care, professionalism, and resident education but were more likely to perceive negative effects on personal activities. There were no significant differences between study groups in resident-reported perception of the effect of fatigue on personal or patient safety. Residents in the flexible-policy group were less likely than those in the standard-policy group to report leaving during an operation (7.0% vs. 13.2%, P<0.001) or handing off active patient issues (32.0% vs. 46.3%, P<0.001). Conclusions As compared with standard duty-hour policies, flexible, less-restrictive duty-hour policies for surgical residents were associated with noninferior patient outcomes and no significant difference in residents' satisfaction with overall well-being and education quality. (FIRST number, NCT02050789 .).

Concepts: Psychology, Patient, Hospital, Surgery, Statistical significance, Physician, Perception, Resident



The objective of this study was to compare resident outcomes before and after implementation of an individualized music program, MUSIC & MEMORY (M&M), designed to address the behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with dementia (BPSD).

Concepts: Psychology, Resident


BACKGROUND: Resident remediation is required for all residents who do not meet minimum standards in one or more of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. The Council of Residency Directors in Emergency Medicine Remediation Taskforce identified the need for case-based examples of remediation efforts. OBJECTIVES: 1) To describe a complicated resident remediation case and employ consensus panel evaluation of the process. 2) To discuss the available assessment tools (including neuropsychologic/medical testing), due process, documentation, reassessment, and relevant barriers to implementation for this and other resident remediations. DISCUSSION: Details of a remediation case were altered to protect resident confidentiality, and then presented to a multidisciplinary group of program directors. The case details, action plan, and course were submitted and the remediation process, action plan, and course are assessed based on a standardized remediation approach. The resident entered remediation for poor organizational skills and an inability to make or follow through with patient care plans. Opportunities for improvement in the applied remediation process are identified and discussed. Legal concerns and utility of neuropsychological assessment of residents are reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Remediation requires a complicated and detailed effort. This case demonstrates issues that program directors may face when working with residents and provides suggestions for use of specific remediation tools.

Concepts: Evaluation, Physician, Assessment, Educational psychology, Management, Medical school, Medical education, Resident


PURPOSE: To determine, through a 10-year review, (1) the prevalence of residents in difficulty, (2) characteristics of these residents, (3) areas of residents' weakness, and (4) outcomes of residents who undergo remediation. METHOD: A retrospective review of resident records for the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine’s (UT-FOM) Board of Examiners for Postgraduate Programs (BOE-PG) was done from July 1, 1999 to June 30, 2009 using predetermined data elements entered into a standardized form and analyzed for trends and significance. Outcomes for residents in difficulty were tracked through university registration systems and licensure databases. RESULTS: During 10 years, 103 UT-FOM residents were referred to the BOE-PG, representing 3% of all residents enrolled. The annual prevalence of residents referred to the BOE-PG ranged from 0.2% to 1.5%. The CanMEDS framework was used to classify areas of residents' weaknesses and organize remediation plans. All 100 residents studied had either medical expertise (85%) or professionalism (15%) weaknesses or both. Residents had difficulties with an average of 2.6 CanMEDS Roles, with highest frequencies of Medical Expert (85%) Professional (51%), Communicator (49%), Manager (43%), and Collaborator (20%). Often, there were multiple remediation periods, with an average of six months' duration. Usually, remediation was successful; 78% completed residency education, 17% were unsuccessful, and 5% remained in training. CONCLUSION: Residents in difficulty have multiple areas of weakness. The CanMEDS framework is an effective approach to classifying problems and designing remediation plans. Successful completion of residency education after remediation is the most common outcome.

Concepts: Retrospective, Physician, Management, Medical school, Outcome, Resident


We previously reported results of our on-line microsurgery training program, showing that residents who had access to our website significantly improved their cognitive and technical skills. In this study, we report an objective means for expert evaluators to reliably rate trainees' technical skills under the microscope, with the use of our novel global rating scale.

Concepts: Report, Psychometrics, Skill, Training, The Residents, Resident


To determine the incidence of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation on postoperative day 1 (POD1) after cataract surgery performed by resident surgeons compared with attending surgeons and to examine the influence of associated variables on the incidence of postoperative IOP elevation.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Physician, Ophthalmology, The Residents, Resident, Detroit, Ford Motor Company


Little current evidence documents how internal medicine residents spend their time at work, particularly with regard to the proportions of time spent in direct patient care versus using computers.

Concepts: Health care, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Illness, Doctor-patient relationship, Medical school, Resident


BACKGROUND:The prevalence of burnout and depression in anesthesiology residents has not been determined. It is also unknown whether anesthesiology resident burnout/depression may affect patient care and safety. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of burnout and depression in anesthesiology residents in the United States. We hypothesized that residents at high risk of burnout and/or depression would report more medical errors as well as a lower rate of following principles identified as the best practice of anesthesiology.METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was sent to 2773 anesthesiology residents in the United States. The questionnaire was divided into 5 parts examining trainees' demographic factors, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), depression (Harvard depression scale), 10 questions designed to evaluate best practice of anesthesiology, and 7 questions evaluating self-reported errors. Best practices and self-reported error rates were compared among subjects with a high risk of burnout only, high risk of depression only, high risk of burnout and depression, and low risk of burnout and depression. Pairwise comparisons were considered significant at P < 0.004 and confidence intervals (CIs) reported at 99.6%.RESULTS:There were 1508 (54%) resident responds. High burnout risk was found in 41% (575 of 1417) of respondents. Working >70 hours per week, having >5 drinks per week, and female gender were associated with increased burnout risk. Twenty-two percent (298 of 1384) screened positive for depression. Working >70 hours of work per week, smoking, female gender, and having >5 drinks per week were associated with increased depression risk. Two hundred forty (17%) respondents scored at high risk of burnout and depression, 321 (23%) at high risk of burnout, 58 (4%) at high risk of depression only, and 764 (56%) at low risk of burnout or depression. Median best practice scores (maximum = 30) for residents at high risk of burnout (difference -2; 99.6% CI, -1 to -2; P < 0.001) or high risk of burnout and depression (difference -4; 99.6% CI, -3 to -6; P < 0.001) were lower than scores of residents at low risk for burnout or depression. Thirty-three percent of respondents with high burnout and depression risk reported multiple medication errors in the last year compared with 0.7% of the lower-risk responders (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION:Burnout, depression, and suicidal ideation are very prevalent in anesthesiology residents. In addition to effects on the health of anesthesiology trainees, burnout and depression may also affect patient care and safety.

Concepts: Psychology, United States, Management, Normal distribution, Best practice, Patient safety, Resident, Burnout


The details of residents' participation in surgery are often not disclosed to patients - an omission that sometimes necessitates overt deception. What if we openly discussed resident participation with patients instead of hiding our need to train future surgeons?

Concepts: Hospital, Physician, Resident