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Concept: Radar tracker


Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar’s detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer’s accuracy in determining a bird’s transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at ∼1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50±0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful for optimising tracking algorithms.

Concepts: Radar tracker, Marine radar, Air traffic control, Bias, Altitude, Flight level, Radar, Scientific method


The amplitude information (AI) of echoed signals plays an important role in radar target detection and tracking. A lot of research shows that the introduction of AI enables the tracking algorithm to distinguish targets from clutter better and then improves the performance of data association. The current AI-aided tracking algorithms only consider the signal amplitude in the range-azimuth cell where measurement exists. However, since radar echoes always contain backscattered signals from multiple cells, the useful information of neighboring cells would be lost if directly applying those existing methods. In order to solve this issue, a new δ-generalized labeled multi-Bernoulli (δ-GLMB) filter is proposed. It exploits the AI of radar echoes from neighboring cells to construct a united amplitude likelihood ratio, and then plugs it into the update process and the measurement-track assignment cost matrix of the δ-GLMB filter. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has better performance in target’s state and number estimation than that of the δ-GLMB only using single-cell AI in low signal-to-clutter-ratio (SCR) environment.

Concepts: Target Corporation, Amplitude, Estimation theory, The Signal, Algorithm, Signal, Signal processing, Radar tracker


Considering the performances of conventional Kalman filter may seriously degrade when it suffers stochastic faults and unknown input, which is very common in engineering problems, a new type of adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter (AThSEKF) is proposed to solve state and fault estimation in nonlinear discrete-time system under these conditions. The three-stage UV transformation and adaptive forgetting factor are introduced for derivation, and by comparing with the adaptive augmented state extended Kalman filter, it is proven to be uniformly asymptotically stable. Furthermore, the adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter is applied to a two-dimensional radar tracking scenario to illustrate the effect, and the performance is compared with that of conventional three stage extended Kalman filter (ThSEKF) and the adaptive two-stage extended Kalman filter (ATEKF). The results show that the adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter is more effective than these two filters when facing the nonlinear discrete-time systems with information of unknown inputs not perfectly known.

Concepts: Filtering problem, Wiener filter, Discrete time, Control theory, Radar tracker, Estimation theory, Kalman filter, Signal processing


In recent years, video target tracking algorithms have been widely used. However, many tracking algorithms do not achieve satisfactory performance, especially when dealing with problems such as object occlusions, background clutters, motion blur, low illumination color images, and sudden illumination changes in real scenes. In this paper, we incorporate an object model based on contour information into a Staple tracker that combines the correlation filter model and color model to greatly improve the tracking robustness. Since each model is responsible for tracking specific features, the three complementary models combine for more robust tracking. In addition, we propose an efficient object detection model with contour and color histogram features, which has good detection performance and better detection efficiency compared to the traditional target detection algorithm. Finally, we optimize the traditional scale calculation, which greatly improves the tracking execution speed. We evaluate our tracker on the Object Tracking Benchmarks 2013 (OTB-13) and Object Tracking Benchmarks 2015 (OTB-15) benchmark datasets. With the OTB-13 benchmark datasets, our algorithm is improved by 4.8%, 9.6%, and 10.9% on the success plots of OPE, TRE and SRE, respectively, in contrast to another classic LCT (Long-term Correlation Tracking) algorithm. On the OTB-15 benchmark datasets, when compared with the LCT algorithm, our algorithm achieves 10.4%, 12.5%, and 16.1% improvement on the success plots of OPE, TRE, and SRE, respectively. At the same time, it needs to be emphasized that, due to the high computational efficiency of the color model and the object detection model using efficient data structures, and the speed advantage of the correlation filters, our tracking algorithm could still achieve good tracking speed.

Concepts: Java, Computer graphics, Programming language, Object-oriented programming, Algorithm, Radar tracker, Improve, Better


Object tracking is an important research direction in computer vision and is widely used in video surveillance, security monitoring, video analysis and other fields. Conventional tracking algorithms perform poorly in specific scenes, such as a target with fast motion and occlusion. The candidate samples may lose the true target due to its fast motion. Moreover, the appearance of the target may change with movement. In this paper, we propose an object tracking algorithm based on motion consistency. In the state transition model, candidate samples are obtained by the target state, which is predicted according to the temporal correlation. In the appearance model, we define the position factor to represent the different importance of candidate samples in different positions using the double Gaussian probability model. The candidate sample with highest likelihood is selected as the tracking result by combining the holistic and local responses with the position factor. Moreover, an adaptive template updating scheme is proposed to adapt to the target’s appearance changes, especially those caused by fast motion. The experimental results on a 2013 benchmark dataset demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better in scenes with fast motion and partial or full occlusion compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms.

Concepts: Alan Turing, Turing machine, Programming language, Algorithm, Computer, Surveillance, Video tracking, Radar tracker


Most existing correlation filter-based tracking algorithms, which use fixed patches and cyclic shifts as training and detection measures, assume that the training samples are reliable and ignore the inconsistencies between training samples and detection samples. We propose to construct and study a consistently sampled correlation filter with space anisotropic regularization (CSSAR) to solve these two problems simultaneously. Our approach constructs a spatiotemporally consistent sample strategy to alleviate the redundancies in training samples caused by the cyclical shifts, eliminate the inconsistencies between training samples and detection samples, and introduce space anisotropic regularization to constrain the correlation filter for alleviating drift caused by occlusion. Moreover, an optimization strategy based on the Gauss-Seidel method was developed for obtaining robust and efficient online learning. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations demonstrate that our tracker outperforms state-of-the-art trackers in object tracking benchmarks (OTBs).

Concepts: Cycle, Method, Psychology, Radar tracker, Sample, Qualitative research


The accurate tracking of zebrafish larvae movement is fundamental to research in many biomedical, pharmaceutical, and behavioral science applications. However, the locomotive characteristics of zebrafish larvae are significantly different from adult zebrafish, where existing adult zebrafish tracking systems cannot reliably track zebrafish larvae. Further, the far smaller size differentiation between larvae and the container render the detection of water impurities inevitable, which further affects the tracking of zebrafish larvae or require very strict video imaging conditions that typically result in unreliable tracking results for realistic experimental conditions. This paper investigates the adaptation of advanced computer vision segmentation techniques and multiple object tracking algorithms to develop an accurate, efficient and reliable multiple zebrafish larvae tracking system. The proposed system has been tested on a set of single and multiple adult and larvae zebrafish videos in a wide variety of (complex) video conditions, including shadowing, labels, water bubbles and background artifacts. Compared with existing state-of-the-art and commercial multiple organism tracking systems, the proposed system improves the tracking accuracy by up to 31.57% in unconstrained video imaging conditions. To facilitate the evaluation on zebrafish segmentation and tracking research, a dataset with annotated ground truth is also presented. The software is also publicly accessible.

Concepts: Developmental biology, Vehicle tracking system, Reliability, Image processing, Radar tracker, Tracking, Tracking system


In recent years, visual object tracking has been widely used in military guidance, human-computer interaction, road traffic, scene monitoring and many other fields. The tracking algorithms based on correlation filters have shown good performance in terms of accuracy and tracking speed. However, their performance is not satisfactory in scenes with scale variation, deformation, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a scene-aware adaptive updating mechanism for visual tracking via a kernel correlation filter (KCF). First, a low complexity scale estimation method is presented, in which the corresponding weight in five scales is employed to determine the final target scale. Then, the adaptive updating mechanism is presented based on the scene-classification. We classify the video scenes as four categories by video content analysis. According to the target scene, we exploit the adaptive updating mechanism to update the kernel correlation filter to improve the robustness of the tracker, especially in scenes with scale variation, deformation, and occlusion. We evaluate our tracker on the CVPR2013 benchmark. The experimental results obtained with the proposed algorithm are improved by 33.3%, 15%, 6%, 21.9% and 19.8% compared to those of the KCF tracker on the scene with scale variation, partial or long-time large-area occlusion, deformation, fast motion and out-of-view.

Concepts: The Target, The Tracker, Radar tracker


Object tracking is a crucial research subfield in computer vision and it has wide applications in navigation, robotics and military applications and so on. In this paper, the real-time visualization of 3D point clouds data based on the VLP-16 3D Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor is achieved, and on the basis of preprocessing, fast ground segmentation, Euclidean clustering segmentation for outliers, View Feature Histogram (VFH) feature extraction, establishing object models and searching matching a moving spherical target, the Kalman filter and adaptive particle filter are used to estimate in real-time the position of a moving spherical target. The experimental results show that the Kalman filter has the advantages of high efficiency while adaptive particle filter has the advantages of high robustness and high precision when tested and validated on three kinds of scenes under the condition of target partial occlusion and interference, different moving speed and different trajectories. The research can be applied in the natural environment of fruit identification and tracking, robot navigation and control and other fields.

Concepts: Radar tracker, Estimator, Signal processing, Kalman filter, Dead reckoning, Estimation theory, Control theory, Robotics


Efficiency and reliability are key issues when a star sensor operates in tracking mode. In the case of high attitude dynamics, the performance of existing attitude tracking algorithms degenerates rapidly. In this paper an extended Kalman filtering-based attitude tracking algorithm is presented. The star sensor is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimate providing the three degree-of-freedom attitude quaternion and angular velocity. The star positions in the star image are predicted and measured to estimate the optimal attitude. Furthermore, all the cataloged stars observed in the sensor field-of-view according the predicted image motion are accessed using a catalog partition table to speed up the tracking, called star mapping. Software simulation and night-sky experiment are performed to validate the efficiency and reliability of the proposed method.

Concepts: Hypothesis, Rigid body, Stochastic, Radar tracker, Estimator, Estimation theory, Star, Scientific method