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Concept: Quitting

315

The number of quit attempts it takes a smoker to quit successfully is a commonly reported figure among smoking cessation programmes, but previous estimates have been based on lifetime recall in cross-sectional samples of successful quitters only. The purpose of this study is to improve the estimate of number of quit attempts prior to quitting successfully.

Concepts: Mathematics, Smoking, Nicotine, Smoking cessation, Estimation, Quitting

41

Most tobacco users initiate use as youth or young adults. To promote tobacco cessation for this group and encourage non-users' engagement in tobacco control efforts, a community-based organization developed a “Street Team” brief outreach intervention that enlisted youth and young adults to encourage their peers to stop tobacco use through a brief intervention. Street Team members provided education, a Quit Kit, and referrals to cessation resources at a total of 27 community events over a four-year period. Tobacco users (n = 279) completed assessments of tobacco use, quit intention, and quit self-efficacy at baseline. Self-reports of cessation outcomes including past week abstinence were assessed 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-intervention. Perceptions of the intervention were gathered from Street Team members (n = 28) and intervention participants post-intervention. T-tests and χ(2)-tests were used to compare those who completed at least one follow-up assessment to those lost to follow-up. Time effects were analyzed using fixed effect models. Missing = using analyses indicate 16.1, 18.6, and 12.5% 7-day quit rate at 1-, 3-, and 6-months follow-up. Feedback from intervention participants indicate the intervention was acceptable and that discussions with Street Team members and provision of quit kits motivated tobacco users to consider quitting. All Street Team members responded positively to their participation in the intervention. This Street Team approach for youth and young adults is promising as an effective approach to the promotion of tobacco cessation among users and engagement and empowerment in tobacco control efforts among non-users.

Concepts: Participation, Effectiveness, Tobacco, Nicotine, Smoking cessation, Assessment, Team, Quitting

8

We examined whether smokers who used e-cigarettes are more likely to quit after 1 year than smokers who had never used e-cigarettes.

Concepts: Present, Time, Future, Electronic cigarette, Past, Presentism, Quitting

4

The social gradient in smoking rates persist with an overrepresentation of smoking and its associated harms concentrated within lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Low-SES smokers are motivated to quit but face multiple barriers when engaging a quit attempt. An understanding of the current treatment service model from the perspectives of treatment-seeking low-SES smokers is needed to inform the design of alternative smoking cessation support services tailored to the needs of low-SES populations. This qualitative study aimed to: i) explore low-SES smokers' recent quitting experiences; ii) assess factors that impact treatment engagement; and iii) determine the acceptability and feasibility of alternative approaches to smoking cessation.

Concepts: Socioeconomic status, Sociology, Smoking cessation, Educational psychology, Qualitative research, Need, Social status, Quitting

4

Background: Despite its potential for usefulness in informing the development of smoking cessation interventions, short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit is a relatively understudied topic. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of smokers' day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit, and to assess associations of day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit with several established cessation-related variables. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to smokers in Hawaii (N = 1,567). To assess short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking, participants were asked to respond “True” or “False” to the statement: “My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next.” Other items measured desire to quit smoking, intention to quit, confidence in quitting, cigarette dependence, and other cessation-related variables. Results: “My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next” was endorsed as true by 64.7% of smokers, and false by 35.3%. Analyses revealed that smokers who indicated fluctuating motivation were significantly more interested in quitting as compared to smokers without fluctuations. Fluctuations in motivation to quit also were associated with greater confidence in quitting, lesser cigarette dependence, and more recent quitting activity (all p < .01). Conclusions: Day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit are common. Day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit are strongly associated with higher motivation to quit, greater confidence in future quitting, and other positive cessation-relevant trends.

Concepts: Smoking, Tobacco, Nicotine, Smoking cessation, Addiction, Drug rehabilitation, Quitting, Craving

3

Pregnancy motivates women to try stopping smoking, but little is known about timing of their quit attempts and how quitting intentions change during pregnancy and postpartum. Using longitudinal data, this study aimed to document women’s smoking and quitting behaviour throughout pregnancy and after delivery.

Concepts: Cohort study, Childbirth, Longitudinal study, Quitting

2

Financial stress is associated with fewer quit attempts and higher relapse rates. This study aimed to compare financial stress among smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers in a highly socioeconomically disadvantaged sample. The study also aimed to determine whether specific indicators of financial stress differ according to smoking status. Adult clients seeking welfare assistance from two Social and Community Service Organisation sites in New South Wales, Australia, were invited to complete a cross-sectional survey between March 2012 and December 2013. Responses to a financial stress scale, smoking status and demographics were collected. Linear and logistic regression modelling was used to examine associations between smoking status and financial stress. A total of 1463 participants completed the survey. Current smokers had significantly higher total financial stress scores than ex-smokers and non-smokers respectively. Current smokers also had higher odds of severe financial stress indicators, such as going without meals (Odds Ratio = 2.2 and 2.0), than both non-smokers and ex-smokers. Even among a highly socioeconomically disadvantaged sample with high levels of financial stress, smoking status further exacerbates experiences of deprivation. Given the relationship between financial stress, socioeconomic disadvantage and difficulty quitting, it is important to provide enhanced cessation support to smokers experiencing financial stress.

Concepts: Logit, Cross-sectional study, Sociology, Australia, Odds, New South Wales, Socioeconomics, Quitting

2

Transit workers, in comparison to the general population, have higher rates of smoking. Although smoking cessation programs are often available through workers' HMOs, these programs are frequently underutilized. Quitting practices, including participation in cessation programs, are often associated with beliefs about smoking behaviors and the ability to quit. We analyzed how transit workers' beliefs about cessation might function as barriers to or facilitators of participating in cessation activities.

Concepts: Psychology, Smoking, Sociology, Nicotine, Smoking cessation, Quitting

2

Men continue to smoke in greater numbers than women; however, few interventions have been developed and tested to support men’s cessation. Men tend to rely on quitting strategies associated with stereotypical manliness, such as willpower, stoicism, and independence, but they may lack the self-efficacy skills required to sustain a quit. In this paper, we describe the development of and reception to an interactive video drama (IVD) series, composed of 7 brief scenarios, to support and strengthen men’s smoking cessation efforts. The value of IVD in health promotion is predicated on the evidence that viewers engage with the material when they are presented characters with whom they can personally identify. The video dramatizes the challenges unfolding in the life of the main character, Nick, on the first day of his quit and models the skills necessary to embark upon a sustainable quit.

Concepts: Smoking, Smoking cessation, Character, Drama, Genre, Quitting, Protagonist, Personally identifiable information

2

Setting a target quit date (TQD) is often an important component in smoking cessation treatment, but ambiguity remains concerning the optimal timing (ie, quitting spontaneously versus delaying to prepare).

Concepts: Smoking, Nicotine, Smoking cessation, Quitting, Date