Concept: Progressive rock
The biomedical research enterprise in the US has become unsustainable and urgent action is needed to address a variety of problems, including a lack of innovation, an over-reliance on soft money for faculty salaries, the use of graduate students as a source of cheap labour, and a ‘holding tank’ full of talented postdocs with limited career opportunities.
Periodontitis involves progressive loss of alveolar bone around the teeth. Hence, automatic alveolar bone-loss (ABL) measurement in periapical radiographs can assist dentists in diagnosing such disease. In this paper, we propose an effective method for ABL area localization and denote it as ABLIfBm.
Grade 2 gliomas occur most commonly in young adults and cause progressive neurologic deterioration and premature death. Early results of this trial showed that treatment with procarbazine, lomustine (also called CCNU), and vincristine after radiation therapy at the time of initial diagnosis resulted in longer progression-free survival, but not overall survival, than radiation therapy alone. We now report the long-term results.
Nowadays, liposuction is the most frequently performed aesthetic surgery procedure in Western Countries. This technique has had rapid development since the 1970s, when it was experimented for the first time by A. and G. Fischer. It is currently widely used in clinical practice for many different situations in aesthetic, reconstructive and functional fields.
To examine the relationship between Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) for Scope of Treatment and setting of care at time of death.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) was established in 1999 and provides national guidance and advice to improve health and social care. Several steps in the research cycle have been identified that can support the reduction of waste that occurs in biomedical research. The first step in the process is ensuring appropriate research priority setting occurs so only the questions that are needed to fill existing gaps in the evidence are funded. This paper summarises the research priority setting processes at NICE.
Although there is substantial epidemiological evidence implicating cold homes in death and morbidity, evidence for the UK on the nature and scale of the costs involved is fragmentary. Policy making in this area is thus not well-informed of the benefit of interventions which arises in the form of costs averted.
Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a warm base and cold top. Here, we provide evidence from observations and numerical modeling of a dramatic aerosol effect on warm clouds. We propose that convective-cloud invigoration by aerosols can be viewed as an extension of the concept of aerosol-limited clouds, where cloud development is limited by the availability of cloud-condensation nuclei. A transition from pristine to slightly polluted atmosphere yields estimated negative forcing of ~15 watts per square meter (cooling), suggesting that a substantial part of this anthropogenic forcing over the oceans occurred at the beginning of the industrial era, when the marine atmosphere experienced such transformation.
Published diagnostic questionnaires for gambling disorder in German are either based on DSM-III criteria or focus on aspects other than life time prevalence. This study was designed to assess the usability of the DSM-IV criteria based Berlin Inventory of Gambling Behavior Screening tool in a clinical sample and adapt it to DSM-5 criteria.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, mainly characterised by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. MPP(+) has been widely used as a PD-related neurotoxin, and their reports suggested the several hypotheses for neuronal cell death. However, most of these hypotheses come from the studies about the acute MPP(+) exposure. We previously revealed that mild MPP(+) exposure (10 and 200 μM), which induces gradual cell death, impairs autophagosome degradation at 48 h. In the present study, we further investigated the specific events of mild MPP(+) exposure and revealed that mild MPP(+) exposure causes the cell death through glucose starvation, but not acute toxic model (2.5 and 5 mM). At 36 h after mild MPP(+) exposure, autophagosome synthesis was enhanced owing to glucose starvation and continued to enhance until 48 h, despite impaired autophagosome degradation. Inhibition of autophagosome synthesis reduced mild MPP(+)-induced cell death. In conclusion, we clarified that glucose starvation-enhanced autophagosome synthesis occurs at an earlier stage than impaired autophagosome degradation and is important in mild MPP(+) toxicity.