SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Premier League

159

This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.

Concepts: Economics, Arithmetic mean, Developmental psychology, Cost, Premier League, Weighted mean, Deficit, Deficit spending

32

The aim of this study was to compare the match performance and physical capacity of players in the top three competitive standards of English soccer. Match performance data were collected from players in the FA Premier League (n=190), Championship (n=155) and League 1 (n=366) using a multiple-camera system. In addition, a selection of players from the Premier League (n=56), Championship (n=61) and League 1 (n=32) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to determine physical capacity. Players in League 1 and the Championship performed more (p<.01) high-intensity running than those in the Premier League (Effect Size [ES]: 0.4-1.0). Technical indicators such as pass completion, frequency of forward and total passes, balls received and average touches per possession were 4-39% higher (p<.01) in the Premier League compared to lower standards (ES: 0.3-0.6). Players also covered more (p<.05) high-intensity running when moving down (n=20) from the Premier League to the Championship (ES: 0.4) but not when players moved up (n=18) standards (ES: 0.2). Similar Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were observed in Premier League, Championship and League 1 players (ES: 0.2-0.3). Large magnitude relationships (p<.05) were observed between Yo-Yo IE2 test performances and the total and high-intensity running distance covered in both Championship (r=.56 and .64) and Premier League matches (r=.61 and .54). The data demonstrate that high-intensity running distance was greater in players at lower compared to higher competitive standards despite a similar physical capacity in a subsample of players in each standard. These findings could be associated with technical characteristics inherent to lower standards that require players to tax their physical capacity to a greater extent but additional research is still required to confirm these findings.

Concepts: Football League Championship, Premier League, The Football League, Sheffield Wednesday F.C., FA Cup, Leicester City F.C., 2008–09 in English football, Leeds United A.F.C.

29

To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the ‘Top 3’ risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature.

Concepts: Premier League, The Football League, Association football, La Liga, Promotion and relegation, FA Cup, Aston Villa F.C.

28

The aim of this study was to define and categorise different styles of play in elite soccer and associated performance indicators by using factor analysis. Furthermore, the observed teams were categorised using all factor scores. Data were collected from 97 matches from the Spanish La Liga and the English Premier League from the seasons 2006-2007 and 2010-2011 using the Amisco® system. A total of 19 performance indicators, 14 describing aspects of attacking play and five describing aspects of defensive play, were included in the factor analysis. Six factors, representing 12 different styles of play (eight attacking and four defensive), had eigenvalues greater than 1 and explained 87.54% of the total variance. Direct and possession styles of play, defined by factor 1, were the most apparent styles. Factor analysis used the performance indicators to cluster each team’s style of play. Findings showed that a team’s style of play was defined by specific performance indicators and, consequently, teams can be classified to create a playing style profile. For practical implications, playing styles profiling can be used to compare different teams and prepare for opponents in competition. Moreover, teams could use specific training drills directed to improve their styles of play.

Concepts: Factor analysis, Premier League, Association football, Team, La Liga, UEFA, UEFA Champions League, Serie A

28

The purpose of this study was to examine the match activity profile of U9 and U10 elite soccer players and to establish if there were any differences between players who were subsequently retained or released by their clubs. Such information should prove valuable in the design of training programs for these very young players and in the talent identification and development process. A Global Positioning System was used to analyze 2-4 inter-academy 6-a-side matches of English Premier League Academy players (U9: N = 22 and U10: N = 12) who trained three times a week (4.5 h) . Speed zones were created based on 5 and 10 m sprint times and an independent sample t-test was employed for a statistical analysis.Both squads covered ∼4000 m in total or ∼4700 m·h during a match (NS between squads), with the U10s tending to cover a greater distance at moderate (p = 0.10) and high speeds (p = 0.08) than the U9s. Retained group covered a greater distance than released group (retained vs. released: 4478 ± 513 m vs. 4091 ± 462 m, p < 0.05) during a match and covered a greater distance during low speed running in absolute (1226 ± 259 m vs. 1005 ± 221 m, p < 0.05) and relative (1325 ± 235 m[BULLET OPERATOR]h vs. 1132 ± 210 m[BULLET OPERATOR]h, p < 0.05) terms.Thus, U9 and U10 players cover over 4000 m in match play and those players who are retained by academies cover a greater distance in total and at low speeds (2.1-3.1 m·s). This information may support the preparation of squad training programs and the talent identification and development process.

Concepts: Student's t-test, Premier League, Global Positioning System, Roman numerals, Global navigation satellite system, Positioning system, 1001, Nautical mile

27

In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n=6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 h recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (P>0.05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (P<0.05) on MD (3789 ± 532 kcal; 61.1 ± 11.4 kcal.kg(-1) LBM) compared with TD (2956 ± 374 kcal; 45.2 ± 9.3 kcal.kg(-1) LBM, respectively). Differences in EI were reflective of greater (P<0.05) daily CHO intake on MD (6.4 ± 2.2 g.kg(-1)) compared with TD (4.2 ± 1.4 g.kg(-1)). Exogenous CHO intake was also different (P<0.01) during training sessions (3.1 ± 4.4 g.h(-1)) versus matches (32.3 ± 21.9 g.h(-1)). In contrast, daily protein (205 ± 30 g.kg(-1), P=0.29) and fat intake (101 ± 20 g.kg(-1), P=0.16) did not display any evidence of daily periodization. Although players readily achieve current guidelines for daily protein and fat intake, data suggest that CHO intake on the day prior to and in recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Energy, Glucose, Glycogen, Carbohydrate, Premier League, Association football

24

Epidemiological studies on football (soccer) injuries are needed to assess both the magnitude of the problem and the effectiveness of preventive programmes. However, few data are available for Italy, which hosts one of the main football leagues in Europe. In this study, we aimed to describe the epidemiology of football injuries in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons of the Italian Serie A. Information about injury location, type, date of occurrence and duration of absence was obtained from www.football-lineups.com , a free collaborative international database on football. Overall, 363 injuries occurred throughout the two seasons affecting 286 players. The most commonly reported injuries were thigh-strain and knee injury, which accounted for 42% and 19% of all injuries, respectively. Injury incidence increased with age and was particularly higher from August to October. Results suggest that injury prevention strategies should be introduced from the preseason to reduce the risk of injuries, especially muscle strains.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Premier League, Association football, Italy, UEFA Champions League, Serie A

14

The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Nutrition, Obesity, Weight loss, Dieting, Premier League, Promotion and relegation

10

To evaluate the new model of providing care based on demand. This included reconfiguration of the workforce to manage workforce supply challenges and meet demand without compromising the quality of care.

Concepts: Health care, England, Premier League, The Football League, 21st century, Football, Promotion and relegation, English football league system

10

The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise programme was introduced in 2001 and has been shown to reduce the risk of acute hamstring injuries in football by at least 50%. Despite this, the rate of hamstring injuries has not decreased over the past decade in male elite football.

Concepts: Premier League, Association football, Accident, La Liga, UEFA, UEFA Champions League, Promotion and relegation, Serie A