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Concept: Prehypertension

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Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) may confound the reported relationship between low blood pressure (BP) and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) in treated hypertensive patients. Incident CVD was assessed in treated hypertensive patients with and without aTRH (BP ≥140 and/or ≥90 mm Hg on ≥3 medications or <140/<90 mm Hg on ≥4 BP medications) at three BP levels: 1: <120 and/or <70 mm Hg and <140/<90 mm Hg; 2: 120-139/70-89 mm Hg; and 3: ≥140 and/or ≥90 mm Hg. Electronic health data were matched to emergency and hospital claims for incident CVD in 118 356 treated hypertensive patients. In adults with and without aTRH, respectively, CVD was greater in level 1 versus level 2 (multivariable hazard ratio, 1.88 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-2.07]; 1.71 [95% CI, 1.59-1.84]), intermediate in level 1 versus level 3 (hazard ratio, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.21-1.44]; 0.99, [95% CI, 0.92-1.07]), and lowest in level 2 versus level 3 (hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.65-0.76]; 0.58, [95% CI, 0.54-0.62]). Low treated BP was associated with more CVD than less stringent BP control irrespective of aTRH.

Concepts: Blood, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Orthostatic hypotension, Prehypertension, Hypotension

142

Patients with hypertension often require a combination of three antihypertensive agents to achieve blood pressure control, but very few single-pill triple combinations are available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single-pill triple combination of perindopril, indapamide, and amlodipine was as effective as a dual-pill combination of perindopril/indapamide plus separate amlodipine at reducing blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled, essential hypertension.

Concepts: Hypertension, Randomized controlled trial, Blood pressure, Amlodipine, Control, Prehypertension, Perindopril

62

Pediatric practice guidelines call for repeating an elevated office blood pressure (BP) at the same visit, but there are few data available to support this recommendation. We compared the visit results in children aged 3 to 17 years with a BP reading ≥95th percentile (n = 186 732) based on the initial BP and the mean of two BP readings, using electronic medical records from 2012-2015. Failure to repeat an initial BP reading ≥95th percentile would lead to a false “hypertensive” visit result in 54.1% of children who would require follow-up visits. After an initial visit result indicating hypertension, hypertension stage I or stage II was sustained in 2.3% and 11.3% of youth during their next visits, respectively. In conclusion, only approximately half of the pediatric patients would be correctly classified based on their initial BP. The recommendation to repeat high BP during the same visit needs to be emphasized because it saves unnecessary follow-up visits.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Stroke, Blood pressure, Orthostatic hypotension, Prehypertension

57

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the greatest cause of death globally, and their reduction is a key public-health target. High blood pressure (BP) affects 1 in 3 people in the United Kingdom, and previous studies have shown that milk consumption is associated with lower BP.

Concepts: Blood, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Blood vessel, Blood pressure, Milk, Prehypertension

53

Blood pressure is a potent determinant of cardiovascular risk, but the most appropriate targets for blood-pressure lowering have long been debated. Observational studies with a low risk of confounding have shown a linear relationship between blood pressure and cardiovascular risk down to 115/75 mm Hg,(1) but some observational studies with a greater potential for confounding, involving persons at increased risk, have suggested a J-shaped curve - that is, below a given blood pressure, risk would increase. When trials of blood-pressure-lowering drugs have shown benefits in patients without hypertension, these effects have often been ascribed to alternative mechanisms. The widespread uncertainty . . .

Concepts: Blood, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Artery, Orthostatic hypotension, Prehypertension

49

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These pediatric hypertension guidelines are an update to the 2004 “Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents.” Significant changes in these guidelines include (1) the replacement of the term “prehypertension” with the term “elevated blood pressure,” (2) new normative pediatric blood pressure (BP) tables based on normal-weight children, (3) a simplified screening table for identifying BPs needing further evaluation, (4) a simplified BP classification in adolescents ≥13 years of age that aligns with the forthcoming American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology adult BP guidelines, (5) a more limited recommendation to perform screening BP measurements only at preventive care visits, (6) streamlined recommendations on the initial evaluation and management of abnormal BPs, (7) an expanded role for ambulatory BP monitoring in the diagnosis and management of pediatric hypertension, and (8) revised recommendations on when to perform echocardiography in the evaluation of newly diagnosed hypertensive pediatric patients (generally only before medication initiation), along with a revised definition of left ventricular hypertrophy. These guidelines include 30 Key Action Statements and 27 additional recommendations derived from a comprehensive review of almost 15 000 published articles between January 2004 and July 2016. Each Key Action Statement includes level of evidence, benefit-harm relationship, and strength of recommendation. This clinical practice guideline, endorsed by the American Heart Association, is intended to foster a patient- and family-centered approach to care, reduce unnecessary and costly medical interventions, improve patient diagnoses and outcomes, support implementation, and provide direction for future research.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Cardiology, Stroke, Blood pressure, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Orthostatic hypotension, Prehypertension

29

The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for initiation of antihypertensive medication and BP target goals.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Artery, Ventricle, Orthostatic hypotension, Prehypertension, Cardiac cycle

28

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a new candidate immunoinflammatory marker that has been reported to be associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. We aimed to investigate the effects of valsartan and amlodipine on the PTX3 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with essential hypertension. Patients with a newly diagnosed essential hypertension were admitted to our internal medicine outpatient clinic. Patients were randomized to one of the following intervention protocols: calcium channel blocker (amlodipine, 5-10 mg/day) as group A (n = 22; mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 52 ± 11 year) and angiotensine II receptor blocker (valsartan, 80-320 mg/day) as group B (n = 28; mean age ± SD: 50 ± 14 year). Endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation were evaluated with PTX3 and CRP. There was a significant decrease in the level of PTX3 after treatment in two groups (P < .05). Although there was a significant decrease in the level of CRP after treatment in amlodipine group, there was no significant decrease in the levels of PTX3 and CRP after treatment in two groups. There were no significant differences in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction between the two treatment groups. In the treatment of hypertension, prior knowledge of the level of plasma PTX3 could be important in antihypertensive drug choice. C-reactive protein and PTX3 are the markers that have role in vascular inflammation and are found associated with the prognosis of cardiovascular outcomes in many trials. In our study, PTX and CRP levels were decreased when compared to baseline levels.

Concepts: Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Angiotensin II receptor antagonist, C-reactive protein, Calcium channel blocker, Prehypertension

27

Background -The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for initiation of antihypertensive medication and BP target goals. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension, implications of recommendations for antihypertensive medication and prevalence of BP above the treatment goal among US adults using criteria from the 2017 ACC/AHA and the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) guidelines. Methods -We analyzed data from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N=9,623). NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) participants completed study interviews and an examination. For each participant, blood pressure was measured three times following a standardized protocol and averaged. Results were weighted to produce US population estimates. Results -According to the 2017 ACC/AHA and JNC7 guidelines, the overall crude prevalence of hypertension among US adults was 45.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43.6%,47.6%) and 31.9% (95%CI 30.1%, 33.7%), respectively, and antihypertensive medication was recommended for 36.2% (95%CI 34.2%, 38.2%) and 34.3% (32.5%, 36.2%) of US adults, respectively. Compared to US adults recommended antihypertensive medication by JNC7, those recommended treatment by the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline but not JNC7 had higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Non-pharmacological intervention is advised for the 9.4% of US adults with hypertension according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline who are not recommended antihypertensive medication. Among US adults taking antihypertensive medication, 53.4% (95%CI 49.9%, 56.8%) and 39.0% (95%CI 36.4%, 41.6%) had BP above the treatment goal according to the 2017 ACC/AHA and JNC7 guidelines, respectively. Overall, 103.3 (95%CI 92.7, 114.0) million US adults had hypertension according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline of whom 81.9 (95%CI 73.8, 90.1) million were recommended antihypertensive medication. Conclusions -Compared with the JNC 7 guideline, the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline results in a substantial increase in the prevalence of hypertension but a small increase in the percentage of U.S. adults recommended antihypertensive medication. A substantial proportion of US adults taking antihypertensive medication is recommended more intensive BP lowering under the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Orthostatic hypotension, Prehypertension