Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Practice


Motor skill memory is first encoded online in a fragile form during practice and then converted into a stable form by offline consolidation, which is the behavioral stage critical for successful learning. Praise, a social reward, is thought to boost motor skill learning by increasing motivation, which leads to increased practice. However, the effect of praise on consolidation is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that praise following motor training directly facilitates skill consolidation. Forty-eight healthy participants were trained on a sequential finger-tapping task. Immediately after training, participants were divided into three groups according to whether they received praise for their own training performance, praise for another participant’s performance, or no praise. Participants who received praise for their own performance showed a significantly higher rate of offline improvement relative to other participants when performing a surprise recall test of the learned sequence. On the other hand, the average performance of the novel sequence and randomly-ordered tapping did not differ between the three experimental groups. These results are the first to indicate that praise-related improvements in motor skill memory are not due to a feedback-incentive mechanism, but instead involve direct effects on the offline consolidation process.

Concepts: Practice, Real analysis, Series, Sequence, Learning, Psychology, Training, Skill


Cognitive theories on deception posit that lying requires more cognitive resources than telling the truth. In line with this idea, it has been demonstrated that deceptive responses are typically associated with increased response times and higher error rates compared to truthful responses. Although the cognitive cost of lying has been assumed to be resistant to practice, it has recently been shown that people who are trained to lie can reduce this cost. In the present study (n = 42), we further explored the effects of practice on one’s ability to lie by manipulating the proportions of lie and truth-trials in a Sheffield lie test across three phases: Baseline (50% lie, 50% truth), Training (frequent-lie group: 75% lie, 25% truth; control group: 50% lie, 50% truth; and frequent-truth group: 25% lie, 75% truth), and Test (50% lie, 50% truth). The results showed that lying became easier while participants were trained to lie more often and that lying became more difficult while participants were trained to tell the truth more often. Furthermore, these effects did carry over to the test phase, but only for the specific items that were used for the training manipulation. Hence, our study confirms that relatively little practice is enough to alter the cognitive cost of lying, although this effect does not persist over time for non-practiced items.

Concepts: Group, Group theory, Concept, Practice, Training, Deception, Truth, Lie


Increased cellular ATP levels have the potential to enhance athletic performance. A proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been supposed to increase ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of this supplement on athletic performance when used during 12 weeks of supervised, periodized resistance training.

Concepts: Practice, Dietary supplement, Training, Adenosine triphosphate


Failure to recruit sufficient applicants to general practice (GP) training has been a problem both nationally and internationally for many years and undermining of GP is one possible contributing factor. The aim of our study was to ascertain what comments, both negative and positive, are being made in UK clinical settings to GP trainees about GP and to further explore these comments and their influence on career choice.

Concepts: United States Navy, Anarchy in the U.K., General practitioner, United Kingdom, Ethnic group, Chess, Training, Practice


Children’s engagement in music practice is associated with enhancements in literacy-related language skills, as demonstrated by multiple reports of correlation across these two domains. Training studies have tested whether engaging in music training directly transfers benefit to children’s literacy skill development. Results of such studies, however, are mixed. Interpretation of these mixed results is made more complex by the fact that a wide range of literacy-related outcome measures are used across these studies. Here, we address these challenges via a meta-analytic approach. A comprehensive literature review of peer-reviewed music training studies was built around key criteria needed to test the direct transfer hypothesis, including: (a) inclusion of music training vs. control groups; (b) inclusion of pre- vs. post-comparison measures, and © indication that reading instruction was held constant across groups. Thirteen studies were identified (n = 901). Two classes of outcome measures emerged with sufficient overlap to support meta-analysis: phonological awareness and reading fluency. Hours of training, age, and type of control intervention were examined as potential moderators. Results supported the hypothesis that music training leads to gains in phonological awareness skills. The effect isolated by contrasting gains in music training vs. gains in control was small relative to the large variance in these skills (d = 0.2). Interestingly, analyses revealed that transfer effects for rhyming skills tended to grow stronger with increased hours of training. In contrast, no significant aggregate transfer effect emerged for reading fluency measures, despite some studies reporting large training effects. The potential influence of other study design factors were considered, including intervention design, IQ, and SES. Results are discussed in the context of emerging findings that music training may enhance literacy development via changes in brain mechanisms that support both music and language cognition.

Concepts: Practice, Dyslexia, Reading, Skill, Phonological awareness, Training, Scientific method, Educational psychology


Context/Objective Despite availability of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), gaps in autonomic dysreflexia (AD) knowledge and practice persist. A free, online educational module, the “ABCs of AD”, was developed to improve knowledge of the AD-CPGs among emergency healthcare personnel. We examine short-term changes in paramedic and nurse trainees' knowledge of, and social cognitions towards using, the AD-CPGs following module completion. Design Pre-post. Methods Thirty-four paramedic and nurse trainees from two training programs in Canada completed measures immediately before and after viewing the online “ABCs of AD” module. Outcome measures AD knowledge test; Theory of Planned Behavior social cognition questionnaire; module feedback survey. Results Paired samples t-tests revealed significant increases in participants' AD knowledge test scores (M ± SDpre = 9.00 ± 2.46, M ± SDpost = 12.03 ± 4.07, P < 0.001; d = 0.84). Prior to viewing the module, participants reported positive social cognitions for using the AD-CPGs (all Ms ≥ 4.84 out of 7). From pre- to post-module, no significant changes were seen in participants' social cognitions for using the AD-CPGs. Participants' average module viewing time was 36.73 ± 24.17 minutes (range 8-90 minutes). There was a decline in viewing from the first to the last module sections, with only half of participants viewing all six sections. Conclusion Knowledge alone is insufficient for clinical behavior change; as such, social cognitive determinants of behavior should be explicitly targeted in future iterations of the module to increase the likelihood of increased use of the AD-CPGs. To engage viewers across all module sections, the "ABCs of AD" module should include supplementary learning strategies, such as interactive quizzes and peer-to-peer interaction.

Concepts: Test, Educational psychology, Student's t-test, Time, Clinical trial, Practice, Cognition, Psychology


Training of emergency procedures is challenging and application is not routine in all health care settings. The debate over simulation as an alternative to live tissue training continues with legislation before Congress to banish live tissue training in the Department of Defense. Little evidence exists to objectify best practice. We sought to evaluate live tissue and simulation-based training practices in 12 life-saving emergency procedures.

Concepts: Health, Practice, Live television, United States Department of Defense, Simulation, Medicine, Health care, Best practice


Even dentures exhibiting superb aesthetics are of no use if they visibly move during speech and social intercourse. In this, the second paper of three on removable denture aesthetics, we describe impression making and shaping the wax occlusal record rims. Not only are the impressions important for producing dentures with maximum retention, stability and support, but their extensions and the thickness of their borders have a decisive influence on lip support and profile. This article shows how the contours of the definitive impressions and the wax rims are developed so as to prescribe the overall form of the replacement gums and teeth. Properly trimmed rims are in essence an early three-dimensional rehearsal, an opportunity for developing the patient’s preferred lip support and natural positioning of the denture teeth at subsequent stages. They can also give an early indication of what speech will be like with the new dentures. Without this 3D clinical information, laboratory technicians have to guess where to put the teeth and have little option but to fall back on the stereotypes of their textbook training.

Concepts: The Temptations, Practice, Prosthodontology, Oral hygiene, Prosthodontics, Teeth, Dentures, The Impressions


The present study examined the effectiveness of daily mindful breathing practices on test anxiety of university students. A total of 36 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a training mindful breathing condition (n = 12), a training cognitive reappraisal condition (contrast group, n = 12), and a non-training condition (control group, n = 12). Each of the participants trained by themselves for 6 days after they had taken one session of education for mindful or cognitive reappraisal practices. They wrote their experiences on daily worksheets and sent it by mobile with taking pictures that were confirmed by the researcher. Before and after training, each of the participants completed a questionnaire to assess: test anxiety, positive thought, and positive affect. The results of the study showed that both mindful breathing practice and cognitive reappraisal practice yielded large effect sizes in reducing test anxiety. In addition, the mindful breathing condition scored significantly higher on positive thoughts than the cognitive reappraisal and control conditions. The findings of this study suggest that both daily mindful breathing and cognitive reappraisal practices were effective in reducing test anxiety; however, mindful breathing increased positive automatic thoughts to a greater extent than cognitive reappraisal.

Concepts: Training, Cognition, Practice, Effect, Effectiveness, Thought, Mind, Psychology


To evaluate the effectiveness of a complex intervention implementing best practice guidelines recommending clinicians screen and counsel young people across multiple psychosocial risk factors, on clinicians' detection of health risks and patients' risk taking behaviour, compared to a didactic seminar on young people’s health.

Concepts: Human behavior, Health care, Randomized controlled trial, Practice, Best practice, Risk